imagine the following problem:

As a developer, I would like to check if my oAuth2 or OpenID Connect client is really secure. I would like to check if it validates the JWT signature, uses the nonce etc.

While I can do these tests all manually, I am sure that there is also an automated way, but I can't find it via google or other means.

Is there such a tool already available?

1 Answer 1


There is a JWT attack playbook. A simple yet effective attack methodology is developed and automated by "ticarpi" :

The Setup:

  • Find JWT tokens
  • Identify a test page
  • Check that your test cases work (replay the token)

The simple checks

  • Is it required?
  • Is it checked?
  • Is it persistent? (Does it continue working after failed tokens are sent)
  • Where is it created?
  • Are the claims processed before/despite validation?
  • Weak HMAC secret used as a key

The basic exploits

  • 'none' Algorithm (CVE-2015-9235)
  • RSA Key Confusion (CVE-2016-5431)
  • JWKS Injection (CVE-2018-0114)
  • null signature (CVE-2020-28042)

The advanced tests

  • "kid" issues - reveal key
  • "kid" issues - path traversal
  • URL Tampering Attacks
  • JWKS Spoofing

Extra checks

  • Cross-service relay attacks
  • Does the expiry get checked?

These checks and more could be conducted by jwt_tool


python3 jwt_tool.py -t https://api.test.com/v1/apps -rh "Authorization: Bearer token"  -M pb
  • thanx for this answer, I fear that those modified tokes will be rejected because of a wrong or missing signature. How will I approach this?
    – rdmueller
    Jul 9, 2021 at 7:50
  • 1
    Sorry but I don't get your concern! It's a good news if the modified token is rejected isn't it? Jul 9, 2021 at 7:52
  • if the token is already rejected because of a wrong signature, there is no way to test for the other issues like expiry check.
    – rdmueller
    Jul 9, 2021 at 8:32
  • Ah, no the tool keep the "original" token and make a change/test a time, so you don't need to handle this, the script do it. I Edited the response to include a "working" command Jul 9, 2021 at 9:01
  • 1
    There also is the OIDC certification test on openID.net/certification … especially handy if you want to validate more the total implementation that just the tokens.
    – LvB
    Jul 9, 2021 at 11:04

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