1. I held every chip (without desoldering, they were still onboard) in a lighter flame for a minute or two. They started "popping" a little if that indicates anything.

  2. Then I drove a nail into every chip (approximately through the center) with the use of a hammer.

Obviously, before all of that, I did a software wipe - ATA Secure Erase using Parted Magic.

If any data survived the process of Secure Erase (the drive was non-SED I am afraid, even though it was one of the newer ones), is physical destruction as described above sufficient to make any recovery attempt essentially impossible?

  • 73
    What is your threat model? Whom do you want to protect against? What is the security requirements of the data?
    – Tom
    Commented Sep 12, 2021 at 13:34
  • 13
    @Giacomo1968 Secure erase is exactly as meaningful for a HDD. It is up to the firmware author to properly implement the function.
    – fraxinus
    Commented Sep 12, 2021 at 21:11
  • 36
    This XCKD sounds very pertinent.
    – Cort Ammon
    Commented Sep 12, 2021 at 21:46
  • Comments are not for extended discussion; this conversation has been moved to chat.
    – Rory Alsop
    Commented Sep 16, 2021 at 15:04

8 Answers 8


This approach to data destruction is theatrical and has little grounding in reasonable threat models.

The most effective policy to ensure safe and responsible disposal of SSDs is:

  1. Use full-disk encryption (e.g. BitLocker, dm-crypt) for the whole lifetime of the disk, and do not write plaintext data to it.
  2. Utilise ATA Secure Erase to wipe the disk. Modern SSDs have transparent encryption at the cell level, and ATA Secure Erase simply discards the key and generates a new one. This renders the data on the underlying flash unreadable.
  3. If you are paranoid, perform a single-pass random wipe over the SSD afterwards. This is rarely justifiable in practice, and is not a safe sanitisation practice on its own due to flash wear-levelling and overprovisioning. It also causes wear on the flash cells, which is why Secure Erase exists in the first place.

If you're already at the point where you're disposing of the disk, and you forgot step 1, then you're in a worse position than you could be, and this is a lesson for next time.

Regarding step 3, the thing about performing random wipes on SSDs is that it is only justifiable if you're trying to gain additional protection against flawed Secure Erase implementations. However, this only makes sense if you presume that the ATA Secure Erase key cycling implementation is the only security boundary preventing an attacker from reading your data, and that an attacker will attempt to perform chip-level data recovery on your disk. Consider the following:

  • If you're using full-disk encryption (FDE), you've already got a concrete layer of protection, so even if Secure Erase completely fails you don't need to worry about it all that much. But if you use ATA Secure Erase and you can't see the data on the drive any more, that means it did something, at least, which is good enough.
  • Regardless of whether or not you're using FDE, if you're a regular person, attackers who have the capability to attack ATA Secure Erase implementations aren't interested in you, and do not stand to profit from using those capabilities on you, so you don't need to worry about it as long as the key is changed to literally anything else (if it wasn't, you could still see all your data).
  • If you work in the type or organisation (government) where such an attack is relevant, you're already using FDE, and you're not getting your advice on Stack Exchange, so none of this is relevant to you and this entire answer is moot.

Whichever way you look at it, ATA Secure Erase is secure enough for an average person or business even if it is not implemented in a cryptographically secure manner. For it to fail as a wiping mechanism, it either has to do absolutely nothing (which is immediately obvious, because the data will still be there), or an attacker has to reverse engineer the SSD firmware, discover the weak key generation mechanism, and perform chip-level data recovery to leverage that attack. As we already established, no such attacker exists in the average person's threat model.

This is not the same as saying "everyone should just go with 'good enough' security all the time and not bother with more advanced mitigations" - that is obviously bad advice. What I mean is that any security decision you make that results in cost or waste should be justified and proportional to the security benefit.

Physical destruction of storage media is rarely necessary, highly wasteful, and should be reserved for scenarios where threat modelling demonstrates a significant safety risk. Many governments (and businesses) have operated excessively paranoid so-called "data destruction" policies for the past decades, but have more recently re-assessed their approach due to the extreme overheads involved.

The historical practices of multi-pass wipes, including utterly ludicrous 35-pass methods, are without merit on modern storage media. At best they do nothing more than wear out the storage device, and at worst they do not effectively remove sensitive information from the device (e.g. due to overprovisioning and wear levelling). Peter Gutmann himself, who wrote the paper that spawned the "Gutmann method", has this to say on the topic:

In the time since this paper was published, some people have treated the 35-pass overwrite technique described in it more as a kind of voodoo incantation to banish evil spirits than the result of a technical analysis of drive encoding techniques. As a result, they advocate applying the voodoo to PRML and EPRML drives even though it will have no more effect than a simple scrubbing with random data.

In fact performing the full 35-pass overwrite is pointless for any drive since it targets a blend of scenarios involving all types of (normally-used) encoding technology, which covers everything back to 30+-year-old MFM methods (if you don't understand that statement, re-read the paper). If you're using a drive which uses encoding technology X, you only need to perform the passes specific to X, and you never need to perform all 35 passes. For any modern PRML/EPRML drive, a few passes of random scrubbing is the best you can do. As the paper says, "A good scrubbing with random data will do about as well as can be expected".

This was true in 1996, and is still true now.

Highly disproportionate and extreme approaches to data destruction gained popularity after the DoD 5220.22-M standard was declassified, which was quickly exploited by vendors of disk wiping software to market their products as "military grade". However, people who were involved in the DoD data destruction standards later admitted that almost none of it was scientifically justified, and was instead written with the goal of appeasing military paranoia and gaining buy-in from non-technical higher ups - hence why it was named "data destruction", rather than "media sanitisation".

The excesses of past policies ultimately resulted in a reduction of security posture through security fatigue and avoidance of onerous requirements. More modern standards recognise this, and take a far more scientific approach.

For media sanitisation I recommend reading and following the advice in NIST SP 800-88 Rev.1. It is very accessible and provides clear advice specific to each type of storage technology. Appendix A contains the most quickly digestible portion of the advice, but you should refer to the guidance in section 4 of the document with regard to which media sanitisation approach you take. Section 2 also provides useful background information.

It is extremely difficult to justify physical destruction of storage media for any regular citizen. To be blunt, it is delusional to expect that a threat actor exists that has the technical capability to perform flash-level data recovery, the motivation and resources to utilise that capability effectively, and proportional motive to justify targeting your data specifically. Unless you're a political dissident or organised criminal, these scenarios are pure fantasy. If you are in one of those groups of interest, extreme approaches to data destruction are bad for operational security because they draw unnecessary attention.

I recommend reading James Mickens' This World Of Ours for a wonderfully humorous take on misguided and overly convoluted security practices:

In the real world, threat models are much simpler. Basically, you’re either dealing with Mossad or not-Mossad. If your adversary is not-Mossad, then you’ll probably be fine if you pick a good password and don’t respond to emails from [email protected]. If your adversary is the Mossad, YOU’RE GONNA DIE AND THERE’S NOTHING THAT YOU CAN DO ABOUT IT. The Mossad is not intimidated by the fact that you employ https://. If the Mossad wants your data, they’re going to use a drone to replace your cellphone with a piece of uranium that’s shaped like a cellphone, and when you die of tumors filled with tumors, they’re going to hold a press conference and say "It wasn’t us" as they wear t-shirts that say "IT WAS DEFINITELY US," and then they’re going to buy all of your stuff at your estate sale so that they can directly look at the photos of your vacation instead of reading your insipid emails about them.

Attempted destruction of an SSD with a lighter is a perfect example of theatrical security policies that feel secure without actually doing anything useful. To destroy an SSD with heat, you generally need to heat them to a temperature far in excess of what a simple lighter can provide. Even if you heat the flash memory ICs directly, much of the heat you're applying to the package will be dissipated by the lead frame and component legs, meaning that the die temperature will be far lower than that of the flame.

It is also important to understand that data retention in flash cells at high temperatures is not best modelled by a "failure point". The behaviour is better modelled as a degradation factor. Flash cells do not have an infinite storage lifetime while unpowered - over time, the cells will start to lose their state. The period between the last powered operation and the time at which the cells lose enough of their state to result in data corruption is known as the data retention rate. For most consumer SSDs, the retention rate is usually around a year, when the drive is stored at the recommended temperature range.

The degradation factor is the measure of how much faster the degradation occurs at a particular temperature. In the recommended storage temperature range, the degradation factor is close to 1. A degradation factor of 2 means that the data degrades in half the time. As the temperature rises, the degradation factor increases. The exact degradation factor at a given temperature is device-specific. For NAND flash, you should expect to see a graph similar to the following:

Graph of degradation factor vs. temperature on NAND flash

(source: Achieving Extensive Data Retention in High-Temperature Environments)

As the die temperature hits 80°C, the degradation factor exceeds 150. If the storage device under test has a standard retention rate of one year, a degradation factor of 150 reduces this to around 60 hours.

If we take a crude linear extrapolation of this graph, beyond the 60°C point, we get a gradient of around 6/°C. If we presume that your lighter manages to get the die temperature to 500°C, this would produce a DF of around 2100. Dividing one year by 2100 gives us 4.2 hours, which is a rough guesstimate of how long you'd have to hold the flash chip over your lighter before it degraded to a significant level. If we're a bit more charitable and assume that your lighter can heat the chip to 1000°C, that brings the degradation factor up to 5850, which still means an hour and a half of heating. Per flash chip. To get an equivalent degradation to one year of being powered off, which does not mean complete loss. This is obviously not practical. If we go all the way up to high-heat butane lighters, and assume that none of the heat is dissipated, we get to about 1900°C in a tightly focused flame - far greater than that of a blowtorch. The DF stops being relevant here because the copper will melt, but if it was still relevant you'd need to heat it for around 46 minutes. Still, this does rather prove the point that it takes a whole lot of heat and/or time to make this kind of destruction approach useful.

Putting a nail through the chips is certainly effective, but at a cost that makes absolutely no sense. If your SSD has failed to the point of being non-functional, and it still contains sensitive data (especially if you forgot to use FDE), sure, subject it to whatever physical destruction approach you like. Realistically, if you throw it away, nobody is going to try to read it by doing anything more than plugging it into a computer. There's no harm done in smashing up an already broken drive, other than the potential for injuring yourself in the process. It might even be cathartic. But if you physically destroy a functioning drive, you're just generating e-waste and costing yourself money for no tangible benefit.

  • Comments are not for extended discussion; this conversation has been moved to chat.
    – Rory Alsop
    Commented Sep 13, 2021 at 17:27
  • 18
    That Mickens quote is gold.
    – John Wu
    Commented Sep 13, 2021 at 18:27
  • 1
    From that chart, it looks like making a batch of hard-drive soup would be more effective and practical than direct application of flame. A hard drive simmering in a pot of water for 4.2 hours seems so much more doable than holding a lighter to every individual chip. Hell, there's probably even a button for it on the Insta-Pot.
    – Patrick M
    Commented Sep 13, 2021 at 21:07
  • 1
    Alright @Nelson , I'll use the pressure cooker at 120ºC for 30 minutes. Remember to increase your cook times appropriately at high altitude. (But we both missed the point, because the 4.2 hour estimate given here is for 500ºC. Whoops. Looks like we need to break out the pressure fryer. Nope, still not hot enough.)
    – Patrick M
    Commented Sep 14, 2021 at 7:24
  • 1
    great write up. i think the writeup would be improved if there were section headers. (one that states 'summary' or "in a nutshell" or "tl;dr" (but i dislike that acronym). then i think there are at least 3 sections: one section talks about software wiping methods, one section talks about physical destruction, one talking about realistic thread models, then a final section with a nuanced conclusion.) Commented Sep 15, 2021 at 15:51

If you really want to be sure the data is unrecoverable, take the drive to a place that does document and hard drive shredding. They'll put the drive through a machine that will shred it into hundreds of tiny pieces, like so:

enter image description here

Note: Some establishments that provide these services will ask you to leave the drives, and they'll tell you that they'll shred them for you later; while others will shred the drives for you on the spot, while you watch.

  • 22
    And all kinds of horror stories of those drives picked up or left ending up not actually destroyed.
    – schroeder
    Commented Sep 12, 2021 at 12:39
  • 52
    Unless you actually get to watch the full chain of custody until your drive ends up in the shredder, such a service has no value at all. In fact it probably has negative value, because you've self-identified as someone who's concerned their data gets destroyed, meaning there's more incentive for insider threats, gov threats, etc. to snoop. Commented Sep 12, 2021 at 17:48
  • 13
    @RedwolfPrograms while it's an extreme, I wouldn't be so sure about that. The (in)famous Dread Pirate Roberts of Silk Road fame was busted in part because of a question he asked here on SO. Meaning, he was a user and it's entirely possible (rather, extremely probable) that the US government was watching him (and his data) like a hawk.
    – BruceWayne
    Commented Sep 13, 2021 at 1:08
  • 5
    @R..GitHubSTOPHELPINGICE: You'll get a certificate that the data has been professionally destroyed, which is valuable, in the sense that it might protect your wallet from liability claims, should the data turn up anywhere unexpected.
    – Heinzi
    Commented Sep 13, 2021 at 12:33
  • 3
    @BruceWayne That SO question was discovered after some google-fu by an agent at the IRS. The guy's email address was tied to the account.
    – GammaGames
    Commented Sep 13, 2021 at 15:13

It appears that heat is unreliable to erase data on memory chips (the flame of a butane lighter, like yours, burns at under 1430 °C).

However, the nail in the chips will prevent them to be readable far more reliably. You should be fine.


I joined from SO just to suggest this (also was unable to just upvote Polynomial's fantastic post above, so I figured I'd just add another way to destroy it successfully).

Scrub rust off of some iron and collect it. Cut a bunch of aluminum and gather the resulting powder/dust. Mix the two in the correct ratios (available online; left out on purpose here to prevent any potential liability on my part). Place your drive(s) into a hole you dug in dirt. Place the powder mixture in a terracotta pot on top of the hole. Ignite a magnesium strip (or a sparkler) in the mixture, which will ignite the thermite mixture you created. Wait for the molten pool of iron, silicon, copper, plastic, fiberglass, and resin byproduct(s) to cool ENTIRELY before attempting to remove it from the hole. Dispose of properly or sell it on Etsy as "art", but remember to always include "The State of California contains one or more chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer, birth defects, or other reproductive harm" :)

In all seriousness though, this is ridiculously over the top unnecessary unless you possess data of national security importance.. and if you did, you wouldn't be asking publicly how to dispose of it in the first place; nobody cares about your data except thieves and advertising companies, and ad companies don't need to resort to such desperate measures when you and everyone else in the world freely give them data constantly. So that only leaves thieves.

Personally, if I was a bad actor, I'd exploit the machines and/or software on the machines before I'd try to recover any data on a thrown out drive since it's significantly easier to get you to click something you shouldn't than it is to try and recover data from a device in a residence's trash that was probably thrown out because it has failed anyway. Hell, slip a bad bit of code into something like a Windows update that you cannot say no to... welcome to where your real concerns should lie with data security.

Look at it like this... spend many hours finding a security hole in Windows to get a whole entire system to do whatever I need with... or dig through rotting food to find a device that may or may not have anything worthwhile on it, risk getting caught, and still possibly be left with a dead drive due to water ingress/food nasties. Seems pretty obvious to me at least which is the go-to-choice.

  • 6
    No need to grind up rust or aluminum to get the powder for thermite. You can buy them from paint shops, though maybe buying them both would get you put on a government watchlist. That said, IIRC there was a presentation about trying to use thermite to destroy hard drives at Defcon a few years back, and they found that it was less effective than you'd think.
    – nick012000
    Commented Sep 13, 2021 at 5:39
  • 2
    This. Some people go nuts about erasing a storage device, but if they did not write their OS from scratch and did not build their hardware themselves from raw ores, they're looking at the wrong place to optimize information security if they think filling it with random data does not suffice.
    – LoremIpsum
    Commented Sep 13, 2021 at 18:51
  • 3
    @nick012000: IIRC, that DefCon thermite talk was about trying to build a self-destruct mechanism that you could have inside your rackmount server while it was running, ready to activate. So you have limited space for the amount of thermite, and you don't have a crater to pool thermite in to keep it in contact with the platters instead of running down the sides. And you don't have pre-drilled holes into the drive (because that would break the seal) for the thermite to pour into that cavity. Thermite destruction when you can take the drive apart first should require a lot less engineering. Commented Sep 14, 2021 at 2:52
  • But yes, anyone contemplating that should definitely watch that DefCon talk first to get ideas for problems to avoid when planning how to pot-roast some storage media. Especially for safety considerations; thermite is pretty serious stuff, and very possible to hurt yourself with if you don't think through what's going to happen, and wait a long time for everything to cool. (Mythbusters used thermite a couple times, including in their Hindenburg episode.) Commented Sep 14, 2021 at 2:54
  • Apart from "national security" level data (which supposedly is correctly handled [by humans...]), and personal data of varying levels of value/secrecy, I think there're other "use cases". E.g. start ups, small, medium-sized companies (anything but a large experienced company) may have data they don't want leaked no matter what (paranoia and liability included), but may not have the expertise to handle it. ONGs. Physicians, dentists. North-koreans? Guys with a "homework" ;-) folder. Shady businesses...
    – Pablo H
    Commented Sep 20, 2021 at 13:43

@Polynomial is right that software full-disk encryption, enabled from the beginning of the drive's lifetime, is the best way to protect your data. (I don't trust ATA Secure Erase—it's too hard to introspect that the hardware manufacturer has implemented it correctly, and historically many of them haven't.)

Should you find yourself in need of greater assurance, however: The NSA standard for sensitive data destruction, the NSA’s Media Destruction Guidance from NSA/CSS Policy Manual 9-12, recommends that media like spinning-platter hard disk drives and SSDs be reduced to not more than a 2mm grain size if disintegration is to be used. (And disintegration is the by-far-to-be-preferred method unless you have access to an industrial incinerator.)

I led some research into this at a previous job, which we just recently published, and the conclusion we came to is that a sufficiently-powerful, commercial off-the-shelf blender, with sharp blades (e.g. a Vitamix), is sufficient to reduce an SSD to under a 2mm grain size in a reasonable length of time. (However there are a couple fiddly details, as well as a number of health and safety concerns to take into account—consult the paper before you attempt this at home.)

I've written a much longer article laying out what's at stake with data at rest, the various ways that adversaries can attack data at rest, and then proposing a set of levels of assurance and associated destruction methods which can be appropriate for your data depending on what the data is and your particular threat model. (I also explain why a number of the other methods of destruction proposed here don't work.)

The tl;dr, though, is: Stick it in a blender.


In short, yes, utterly so.

If you had your plans for global destruction or the recipe for coca-cola on it, or you're just feeling especially paranoid then perhaps obsessively mangle the remains with a pair of pairs of pliers and make sure the components inside the chip casings are torn up, that's what I tend to do with broken SSDs.

In the end, nobody is going to find the shards of your SSD and get to work with a very small soldering iron on the off-chance there's a forgotten bitcoin wallet on it :)

If your data is that sensitive or valuable, anyone interested would presumably just go after whatever medium it was copied it to before destroying this device !


If the drive is operable, erase the data you no longer want, and keep using it, and properly secure it when not in use so that it won't be stolen.

If the drive is no longer operable, and was ever used to store information that has been declared confidential by your employer, hand it over to the security folks for disposal.

If the drive is no longer operable, and never contained information that has been classified by your employer, dispose of it as you would any other electronic trash. The people who can get the data off of the drive don't care enough about your data to bother with it.


Some data is still recoverable (although exact percentages are anyone's guess).

Next time I'd suggest removing all chips from the board, putting them in a bag, t-shirt, etc and hammering them into a pulp. Then, burn them with a torch (not lighter).

Alternatively, get a strong blender and blend the chips/board and then burn whatever's left.

Once you have done the above, flush them down the toilet.

SSDs have non-volatile memory and the data is spread across each chip. As a result, surface heating from a lighter doesn't guarantee total destruction of the data and neither does driving a nail through the chip (because most of the chip is still intact).

Currently, techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) can be used to directly observe memory contents (research paper) so, unless completely destroyed, chips can potentially be read by people/agencies with money and/or equipment.

The processes described above guarantee complete destruction of all data and no amount of money or technology (current or future) will ever be able to recover anything.

  • 6
    Please do not "flush" e-waste into the sewer system. Thank you for explaining your first statement.
    – schroeder
    Commented Sep 14, 2021 at 16:21

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