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Do pdf files pose a higher security risk than regular image files (png, jpeg, etc.)? In my understanding is that most image files don't carry any security risk because all exploits were fixed, but there are a lot more security risks for PDF files. Is this the case?

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    most image files don't carry any security risk because all exploits were fixed - that is incorrect. Software is almost never bug-free. It is always possible that there is an as-yet undisclosed exploit present in any particular image rendering software. So image files aren't necessarily always safe.
    – nobody
    Dec 16, 2021 at 16:58

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First, PDF isn't an image file. So a comparison to "regular" image files is like comparing apples and oranges. Or better: comparing a box of various fruits with an orange.

PDF is more like a structured container which can include text, links, images, program code (Javascript), forms, arbitrary binaries ... . So it basically gets all the problems of the image files (which it can embed) and then adds some significant problems on top - notably explicit code execution instead of only code execution due to parsing bugs in image formats.

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