4G and 5G authentication procedures includes master keys or long term keys which are shared between subscribers and Home Networks, for 4G they are called Ki.

A case was reported here in which NSA stolen those keys for an important manufacturer, thus having the doors unlocked for decryption.

My question is: how is it possible to protect those keys securely on SIMs? Is there any hardware procedure to avoid the direct acquisitions of this information directly from the hardware?


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