Suppose we have a site that has public and private areas. The private areas require login.

For example "www.site.com/about" is publicly accessible. But "www.site.com/message_inbox" requires authorization (valid login).

So what happens when someone who is not logged in, tries to access a private area like "www.site.com/message_inbox"?

It would be terribly confusing for legitimate users to receive a 404 error. (e.g. imagine refreshing the page after your session expires and seeing a 404). Therefore, it is convenient for legitimate users if we redirect to a login page.

However, then an attacker could determine whether "www.site.com/some_page" is a legitimate private URL, by seeing if it returns a 404 error or a login page. Maybe we don't want outsiders to be able to compile a list of valid URLs.

We could attempt to mask this by redirecting ALL requests to the login page, except for the public pages. But this becomes silly as all junk requests will happily return HTML.

What is the correct solution to this?

  • 5
    @Kryomaani it could be a defense against corporate espionage. For a Software as a Service product where you're hosting projects on behalf of other organisations this allows enumeration of things like unreleased product names. Github does this with their API "In many places, this would disclose the existence of user data. Instead, the GitHub API responds with 404 Not Found." Commented May 18, 2022 at 2:46
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    What's wrong with someone "compiling a list" of valid URLs?
    – Tvde1
    Commented May 18, 2022 at 8:17
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    @ymbirtt then dont do that, use a non-PII bit of info for the URL like a profile id rather than the username for private profiles.
    – Moo
    Commented May 18, 2022 at 9:35
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    @ymbirtt Then require authentication to access the page regardless of whether the user exists or not. Commented May 18, 2022 at 9:42
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    Basic example, perhaps John does not want everyone in the world to know that photogallery.com/users/john/gallery/secret_gay_party/ exists... For a photo-gallery site to reveal this would be a breach of security in my opinion. This is not about "security via obscurity". Commented May 18, 2022 at 12:14

9 Answers 9


What is your threat model?

With a blanket approach you won't solve your use case. Correct, if you do as you describe you allow an attacker to enumerate your valid pages, theoretically. Does he have an advantage doing so? Do you have a possible attack vector that requires him to have knowledge of valid pages? Would your app leak information through such an enumeration?

These are the questions to ask. Once you have the answers, you can calculate the trade-off between user-friendliness and security.

Maybe we don't want outsiders to be able to compile a list of valid URLs.

The question "why?" is asked not often enough in InfoSec. We have a bunch of "best practices", most of which are really based on "everyone I asked thinks that's a good idea". Take the password complexity disaster where we've told users for decades something that's simply wrong. And it'll take us at least another decade to get all those silly complexity rules encoded into software and security policies out of the system.

Never stop with "maybe we don't want". Ask what the actual threat behind it is that you are trying to prevent.

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    Spot on! I think the answer to "Maybe we don't want" is simply "Well then, maybe don't do".
    – MonkeyZeus
    Commented May 18, 2022 at 13:44
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    While threat models are a really good tool, my experience tells me that you should not assume that just because you can't imagine a way something could be abused it doesn't mean that no one else can. If asking 'why' becomes a way to dismiss valid concerns, it can be problematic. I've had valid security concerns dismissed by people simply because they lack an understanding of the risk and can't understand the explanations around them.
    – JimmyJames
    Commented May 18, 2022 at 17:30
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    @JimmyJames yes, you should always assume the attacker is smarter than you are. That is why you don't discard a threat because you can't imagine how to do the attack, but you do discard it if you see that even a successful attack doesn't lead anywhere. In this case: If the attacker doesn't gain any useful information by enumerating your site, it doesn't matter how clever he is in doing it.
    – Tom
    Commented May 18, 2022 at 19:02
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    "If the attacker doesn't gain any useful information by enumerating your site" but this assumes you are correct in that assessment. What if there's something useful about this information that you haven't considered. I would tend to go the other way, if there's no benefit to distinguishing between these errors then you shouldn't do it.
    – JimmyJames
    Commented May 18, 2022 at 19:17
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    @Tom People are routinely fooled by "proofs" of impossible statements like "1 = 0" because they don't naturally recognize that dividing by an unknown x only works when x is non-zero. If someone on the math S.E. asked "how can this be?", I would expect the answer to go beyond "what's wrong with the proof?" and instead help them identify those errors. Similarly, while "what's the threat model?" is a crucial question to ask, the purpose of questions like these is to get help in identifying the model. Restating the question isn't helpful to people who want help with the answer. Commented May 19, 2022 at 13:38

There is no correct solution as every site has there own things going on, but I'll give my two cents on how you can tackle this.

Usually sensitive pages are behind a directory or on a separate subdomain which allows you to mask all sensitive pages and others by simply returning a 301 redirect to the login page. So for example /members/home will redirect to /members/login, and so would /members/asadasd, so the attacker won't know the different sensitive pages. If you're able to move everything to this type of structure, it's probably preferable.

As for your case, the best solution is to probably return a 404 if the user is not logged in and is trying to access a sensitive location. This is so the attacker won't be able to enumerate a valid page (e.g., /message_inbox) and a non-valid page (e.g., /asdasasd) as both will return a 404.

As pointed out in the comments, this approach has been suggested in RFC-7231 (Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content):

An origin server that wishes to "hide" the current existence of a forbidden target resource MAY instead respond with a status code of 404 (Not Found).

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    Returning a 404 for unauthorized requests to hide URLs from attackers does not sound like a user-friendly nor safe approach.
    – CodeCaster
    Commented May 17, 2022 at 23:26
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    @CodeCaster GitHub gives 404 for private repositories if you don't have access, so an attacker can't enumerate "existence" of private repositories.
    – iBug
    Commented May 18, 2022 at 8:44
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    @iBug The private repository makes sense because it's hiding user-created content but OP's issue is akin to hiding the fact that github.com/new exists.
    – MonkeyZeus
    Commented May 18, 2022 at 11:54
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    @CodeCaster Not sure if it matters to you but this approach is specifically stated to be a valid way to use 404: "An origin server that wishes to "hide" the current existence of a forbidden target resource MAY instead respond with a status code of 404 (Not Found)."
    – JimmyJames
    Commented May 18, 2022 at 14:50
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    IMHO, if URLs that include "identifiers" always used secure random ids there would be 0 issues since you cannot enumerate them in any practical way. The problem only arises when the URL uses simple integer ids or usernames that can be discovered "outside" so the attacker can make some good guesses. In that case IMHO your server should keep track of suspicious behaviour like an IP trying to access the same URL with many different ids in a short time frame and ban the IP to slow down the attack, though the best solution would be to simply use non-enumerable identifiers.
    – Bakuriu
    Commented May 18, 2022 at 20:08

I don't think this is a serious flaw (see Tom's answer).

However, if you think it is, the problem can be avoided.

You have a list of "publicly available URLs", such as /about.

For all other URLs, you should give a 302 to a login page whether the requested page exists or not. Only after the user logs in should you give a 404 if relevant.

This way, the redirect does not give intruders any information at all.

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    Changed 301 to 302 after reading Austin Hemmelgarn's answer. Commented May 19, 2022 at 7:24

The correct solution is to issue the redirect regardless of the status of the target URL if the user is not authenticated. This is easily doable for any normal web server (you set up a redirect rule to match on the common prefix for all the sensitive pages that also checks for the existence of the session credentials), provides good UX for legitimate users, and avoids the issue of potentially disclosing the existence of specific URLs.

Note that when I say ‘redirect’ here I mean sending a 302 status code (not a 301 like some of the other answers suggest, a permanent redirect is not correct here) with a Location header pointing at the login page, and ideally set things up to return the user to the desired page after login. This method avoids sending the login page if the client doesn’t actually follow the redirect, and also allows the login page to be cached (unlike doing silly things like URL rewrites or having the web app throw up different HTML depending on the authentication status), which should mitigate any usage issues from people trying to do URL harvesting.

If you really do not want to redirect to a login page, then you should return a 403 status code for all unauthenticated requests instead (and possibly use a custom error page with a link to the login page). This is the HTTP equivalent of a ‘Permission denied’ message, so unlike a 404 it accurately describes the actual error.

The important thing here is that regardless of which status code you choose, you return it uniformly for all secure URLs when an unauthenticated user attempts to access them. By making the response uniform, you avoid the risk of information disclosure, and it just comes down to how you want to respond.

What I describe above is the standard approach in most modern web apps when the default assumption is that the resource the user is asking for actually exists. If, instead, the default assumption is that the resource does not exist (this is the case for example with GitHub’s handling of private repositories), then the more correct behavior is to just return a 404 for all private URLs for unauthenticated users.

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    Regarding uniform returning of unauthorized queries: it might be also needed to remember the timing component here, especially with access control. It might take 50ms to check if page exists and return that as 302 redirect, but checking existence and access permission may take 100ms if you do it against database on two queries. Even when the attacker got 302 redirect again, they can see the page actually exists from the timing difference. It really depends on your threat model if that is acceptable. You can also go the "no login cookie exists, return 302" route in some cases.
    – hegez
    Commented May 20, 2022 at 2:35
  • 2 cents: app should issue 401 http status code when there is no user credentials were posted. But if they were posted and user is restricted to access, then 403 should be issued. Commented Mar 19, 2023 at 2:32

I agree with Tom's answer that this seems like a bizarre threat model.

Worrying about attackers enumerating static URLs implies that:

  • The web app is on the internet (or at least accessible to attackers, ie not on a private network)
  • It is difficult to get an account; ie no free trials or demo instances for attackers to play with.
  • Knowing the static URLs somehow leads to the attacker being able to do bad things (this is the core of Tom's answer).
  • And finally: there is no easier way for an attacker to learn the URLs, for example by analyzing your javascript code or links in the public HTML pages. I suppose it's possible that the public pages only have links to other public pages, and that you have separate javascript files for the public and private parts of your app, but I've personally never seen an app built that way.

TL;DR this seems like an odd thing to want to do. I would suggest instead following Kerckhoff's Principle and designing your web app so that it is secure even if an attacker knows everything about its design (HTML, javascript, static URLs, etc).

UPDATE addressing JimmyJames' comment.

If you have dynamic URLs like /users/<username> or /device/<deviceId>, then it makes sense to return a 404 so that the following are indistinguishable:

  • URL does not exist.
  • URL exists but you don't have permission to see it.

However, since your example was www.site.com/message_inbox, I assume you're not talking about dynamic URLs though.

  • I'm having a hard time squaring your assertion that this is bizarre with the fact that using 404 instead of 403 is described as a valid response in the RFC and that major players like AWS use a similar approach. You might disagree with this idea but it's not unusual to protect against this.
    – JimmyJames
    Commented May 18, 2022 at 17:15
  • Examples of websites that do this are reportedly Github and Facebook.
    – JimmyJames
    Commented May 18, 2022 at 17:25
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    @JimmyJames I added an update. Does that address your comment, or do you mean that github / facebook protect static URLs also? And if so, why? What are they possibly gaining by doing that? Commented May 18, 2022 at 19:43
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    BTW: Ironically enough it seems that SE uses this approach: meta.stackexchange.com/questions/258756/…
    – JimmyJames
    Commented May 18, 2022 at 20:38
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    Thanks for the interesting discussion @JimmyJames! Commented May 18, 2022 at 20:49

Use status 404.5 - Not Found + Denied by request filtering

You can return HTTP status 404.5 "Denied by request filtering." This is accurate since your site denies any requests to non-public URLs based on a business rule (user must be authenticated). Since it's a 404.x message it also makes sense to serve it for URLs that do not exist.

For the convenience of your legitimate users, you can configure your server to serve a custom page for status 404.5, and include a link to the login page from there. That way the browser is not loading the login page (which could have side effects) arbitrarily for garbage URLs. Only when the user clicks the link would the login page be served. The custom 404.5 page can be static HTML and can be set to cache so it is only loaded by the browser once.

  • Where are you getting these 404.x statuses from? I've seen some other people talking about them, but I can't find a list of their meanings and I doubt this is valid HTTP.
    – wizzwizz4
    Commented May 20, 2022 at 8:55
  • THats a subclassification by the IIS server from windows. the Sent statuscode is a 404 for all 404s, the distinction is for choosing what error page to send to the client.
    – masterX244
    Commented May 20, 2022 at 11:57

We could attempt to mask this by redirecting ALL requests to the login page, except for the public pages. But this becomes silly as all junk requests will happily return HTML.

You are trying to keep the attacker from knowing what private pages are available without authenticating. This means existing and non-existing pages must return identical results. Therefore, you authenticate first, and handle the 404 after.

There's nothing silly about returning HTML for non-existing pages - that's implied by your desired behavior. Some websites do things like put everything that requires auth below a path like example.com/private/... so that the client does not expect to get a 404 right away for things under private/. Moreover, this "silly" problem goes away as soon as you authenticate.

This is a standard pattern in access control. Before you can see what resources are available, you must first authenticate. If you're not authed, you can't distinguish "does not exist" from "not allowed to access".


The usual thing I have seen is to reload the login page once the session expires. Like how your bank does "you've been logged out due to inactivity". This prevents your issue with 404* on refresh.

  • don't return 404 for invalid credentials, it's confusing and may cause the browser to remove a bookmark or something. Return 301 and redirect them to the login page, or 401 unauthorized.
  • "401 Unauthorized" is supposed to trigger HTTP authentication. Using it for any other purpose is likely to cause more security issues than it solves.
    – Mark
    Commented May 17, 2022 at 23:48
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    Mark is correct about 401. You probably mean 403, "Forbidden", which has a similar name but a different purpose. Commented May 18, 2022 at 2:10

The solution to this is to redirect anything that is not a public resource to the login URL, including nonexistent pages.

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