First note that the random generator in Python is explicitly documented as "completely unsuitable for cryptographic purposes".
It is also documented that it uses "the Mersenne Twister as the core generator. It produces 53-bit precision floats and has a period of 2**19937-1.". From this question it looks like that Python uses MT19937, which is known to be predictable when observing 624 iterations, see als Wikipedia about it. There are also programs like this which show how you get the state and predict the next numbers if 624 values are observed.
It is not possible to determine the state from only 16 numbers though, i.e. there would be multiple possible states for this. Knowing the number of digits in the seed would not add sufficient information either.
Since this specific random generator is declared unsuitable for cryptography I recommend to check math.stackexchange.com if you want to get more into the details of this algorithm.