Unless there is some kind of vulnerability in the software used to extract the RAR archive, etc., you shouldn't be in any danger. The fact that Defender recognized it as a threat and blocked it means that it shouldn't have had a chance to infect your system (unless there is an unknown, unpatched vulnerability).
In your case, I can, confidently, say that you didn't "run" the file/executable.
But, be aware that double clicking is not the only way for binaries to be "run". Any other program or app that "does" something with the executable has the potential to "run" it, under certain circumstances (vulnerabilities, bugs). For example, the VirusTotal Uploader I use, always makes SmartScreen display an error that the Uploader tries to "run" the unknown executable. If the Uploader has a vulnerability/bug, then the executable could have the potential to infect the computer (unless some other anti-malware solution prevents it).
In any case, with quite high certainty, I can say that, in your case, with the information provided, there doesn't appear to exist any non-negligible possibility that you were infected.
If you want additional peace of mind, although, in my opinion, it is unnecessary, you can run an offline scan with Windows Defender (requires a restart), or with another anti-malware solution of your choosing.