When I installed Debian 12 LXQt ISO with the graphical install, it installed many proprietary firmware packages that were not needed and without my consent.

Is it possible that proprietary firmware included in Debian default installation contains spyware that hides somewhere else (like viruses that are able to duplicate themselves in several locations) even after uninstalling all unnecessary packages we see with the command vrms?

I was wondering if I need to reinstall the whole operating system without proprietary firmware to have a clean installation. But I guess the issue would only be technically possible with software packages, not firmware packages.

  • "... installed ... without my consent." - I'm not sure what granularity of consent you expect when installing an OS. For each file transferred? As for installing a system w/o non-free firmware see wiki.debian.org/… Oct 20, 2023 at 16:01
  • @SteffenUllrich When installing a Linux distribution like Debian, I was expecting that non-free firmware packages are not installed by default, like it was in previous versions or that it only installed packages that are necessary, which was not the case, for example raspi-firmware was installed even if I did not use Raspberry Pi. So it would be nice if the user is asked consent so they can check the list in case they did not think about adding firmware=never to the boot parameters or did not use the expert mode. Let me know if someone has an idea about my security question.
    – baptx
    Oct 20, 2023 at 16:14


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