I remember hearing about LoJack for laptops in the past. I did some research, and they claim they have some BIOS-integrated feature that would allow tracking, I'm not sure if this could be succesfully combined with full disk encryption
From a PC Mag Review:
Persistence Furthers Along with the main application agent, LoJack
includes an invisible component called the Persistence Module. This
component is embedded in the BIOS of many computers from the company's
OEM partners, which include Dell, Gateway, HP, and Lenovo, among
others. Absolute software maintains a lengthy list of laptop models
that include BIOS support.
The embedded software remains dormant until you install LoJack for
Laptops and make a successful connection with the monitoring center.
Once activated, the module monitors the system to make sure the
application agent is present and running. If the thief wipes the hard
drive or even replaces it with a different hard drive, this module
restores the application agent. That's persistence!
I was hoping this was some GPS-enabled + pager sending chip, not just software. There seems to be a few other vendors with similar software. I found a similar discussion on this topic from Slashdot which may be useful. It would seem there may be some potential if you can get the protection to be implemented at the BIOS level, which then works even with a new hard drive.
Though, I would imagine backing up your data frequently/continuously and getting home or renters insurance will be cheaper and easier - just replace the laptop with a new one instead of recovering and reload your data without waiting for recovery of the protected physical asset.