If the client initially starts a connection with the correct server, then no, the attacker can't do anything against that connection, but if the attacker can get the user to attach to them instead, then they can play the middle man and make a connection with the client and a separate connection with the server as long as client certificates are not being used.
If the client is using a certificate as well however, then the attacker has a problem as they won't be able to complete the authentication with the real server as the client without also having the client's private key. This is because the session key exchange requires knowing the portion of the key created by both the client and the server. If the real server encrypts its portion of the session key with the client's private key, then it is impossible for the MITM to complete the session key to talk with the real server and it can't function as a MITM, just a stand in for the real server.
If the MITM is able to capture the first time a client makes a connection at all however, it can convince the server that the key pair it generates is actually the client and then it can successfully MITM a client key, but this only works if the real server does not have prior knowledge of the client's public certificate.