I am learning about SSH and how to use it to secure file transfers and commands between a windows machine and a Linux server. Everything that I have read so far indicates that I need to use an SFTP client (like WinSCP) to connect to my server and transfer files. Gettin gin a little deeper, the docs for WinSCP never tell me to set up a public or private key pair on my client and server. I thought that the public and private keys were a fundamental element of how SSH worked. How is SFTP (which I have read is based on SSH) able to function without a public and private key pair (or is it defaulting to an insecure mode like FTP in the situation?)
Originally, I thought that I needed to create these pairs for each individual that wanted to connect to the server and manually copy the public key file to the clients machine.
I did not understand that there are two sets of public/private keys in use, one that is created by the server and one that could possibly be created by the client. Initially, I though that they were the same public/private key pair.