You are not providing much information about the target host. Is it a host you own and configured yourself? Or is this a scan of a 3rd-party host?
Assuming it is a 3rd-party host, I would suggest that the reason you observe this sort of behavior is because this host is behind some sort of network Intrusion Prevetion System or stateful firewall that implements Port Knocking.
When you perform nmap scans without explicitly specifying the port range, nmap scans by default the most common 1000 ports. During this scan, nmap accidentally* connects to the right sequence of ports in order to trigger a "knock", which results in dynamic modification of the firewall rules in order to allow connections to the ports you mentioned.
When you explicitly specify the port range, the "secret handshake" of connecting to a specific port sequence never happens and the firewall keeps dropping any traffic destined for those ports.
Given the fact that you observe such behavior both with top 1000 common ports and with other arbitrary large ranges, I would assume that the "knock" is a collection and not a sequence of ports -in other words, the order of connections to those ports does not matter.
[*] This might not be entirely accidental if this host is part of some network security challenge or a honeypot. It is highly unlikely for someone to roll-out such mechanism without bothering to test it with mainstream network/security scanning tools.