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Pseudorandom generators (PRG) are functions that takes a random small input (called the Seed) and maps it into much larger output .

However, the mapping process must be unpredictable in order for the PRG to be used securely in cryptography.

My question is: Are there any tool the does the opposite? i.e. takes a long random string and maps it to a smaller random unpredictable output?

And if not, can we use s-box for this purpose?

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    A hash function? – user10211 Jul 25 '14 at 12:44
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    @HSN — what's the use case for this? – Joel L Jul 25 '14 at 13:19
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    Unless I miss something, you just described a cryptographic hash. – Bruno Rohée Jul 25 '14 at 13:26
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It seems to me a cryptographic hash, such as the SHA family, would do what you are describing. If not perhaps you could clarify your question.

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  • Correct. Hash functions can actually be used as a random extractor (see NIST SP 800-90B). NIST however requires that you put in twice as much entropy as the output of the hash function (to call it fully randomized). Of course, if you already have a well seeded CSPRNG you can just take the amount of bytes you require for all practical purposes. – Maarten Bodewes Jul 29 '14 at 11:42
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PRG do not really map something small to something big. Seed and numbers are often of the same size. Also they are not unpredictable but deterministic for a given seed. Only the sequence of numbers the PRG creates is "random".

Anyway, if you need a function where you put in something big and get a smaller result where you can not simply revert the process, you are probably looking for a hashing function.

But maybe you need to tell us more about what you like to do.

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