I installed a fresh Windows 7. I wonder why when I visit website using HTTPS, I do not get asked to accept their certificate like shown on this picture:
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Because your browser comes with its own set of certificates.
When you install a new version of Windows 7, it comes with Internet Explorer.
Internet Explorer, like any other browser, comes with its own set of certificates that it trusts.
All the web authentication is based on the fact that there are only valid certificates in your browser.
How does authentication with certificate work?
When you access an https link, the server you access send its own certificate.
This certificate is signed using asymmetric cryptography with the private key of a trusted entity.
The certificates that ship with your browser ARE your trusted entities.
So when you receive a new certificate, you ask the trusted entity (certificate)
if they can validate the identity of the certificate you just received.
Here the certificates stored in your browser act like public keys. If one of the public key can verify
the signed certificate, you know that it was issued by the trusted entity that created this public key.
You need to protect the certificates stored in your browser (trusted entity).
If a malicious user can insert its own certificate it could impersonate the
server your are trying to reach and do an attack called man in the middle.
The only thing protecting you against that is the fact that all the trusted entity in your browser are valid.
Here is a good example of how this attack can be done:
How can my employer be a man-in-the-middle when I connect to Gmail?
Microsoft has a "Microsoft Root Certificate Program" here they check the trustworthiness of a certificate authority (CA). If a CA wants their certificate to be automatically updated with Microsoft they need send Microsoft a test certificate so they can test the root certificate. These certificates are then installed by default and updated as they change.
For more info on the Root Certificate Program read up on this page