I see a number of companies offering "malware removal" services. I see some software that claims to be able to remove malware from an infected machine.

Is using a removal software tool to 'clean' an infected machine acceptable practice, or is the only safe method to reformat the machine and then carefully restore data after that data has been thoroughly checked?

  • 3
    One point to note, a lot of ads you might see for anti-malware, is actually a "clever" phishing technique to get you to install their piece of malware.
    – AviD
    Commented Sep 14, 2011 at 10:52

4 Answers 4


It actually depends a lot on the malware in question as to whether a removal tool is in fact a really feasible option. Whether said tool works or not depends on how much the author of the tool knew about the original malware and what it did.

To illustrate my point, take a look at something like Autoruns. There are a whole slew of ways to get your chosen executable to run on windows startup which autotools mostly displays, but only two of those are standard choices for the average software engineer. Malware authors can easily use many of the other areas, or even multiple areas, to become much more persistent across reboots.

Next up is the damage you can to the windows registry. For example, the handling of .exe files is in fact denoted by a registry entry, so there's an attack point with which I could damage your system if you undid it naively. Likewise for other common extensions such as word documents. The question becomes, does the removal tool author know what these values were prior to the viral infection? Does the tool even detect these changes? I could easily hide a re-install malware executable in such a route, triggered by say a plugin load into internet explorer, or such like.

Next up is the most difficult to recover from - what if said virus starts trampling all over various files you own? It's entirely possible it could patch parts of windows this way, or your user data and programs, storing copies of itself, which means you'd have to know it did this and search for the damaged files, or else scan all files for the payload. Which gets even harder if it is self modifying. If any of these payloads are triggered, a re-install is a likely behaviour.

The final case is the old rootkit, which could hide the infection from the cleaning program. You can go some way to detecting rootkits if you try hard, but it is significantly non-trivial.

I should also point out at this stage that websites offering to clean/disinfect your computer are a great attack vector for any malware author. Emails introducing yourself as Mr So and So with £850,000 USD they just happen to want to give away are pretty obviously frauds to most people, but the computer says "alert, you have a virus" in a way that looks legitimate to your average home user and before you know it, they've installed said "product". They don't necessarily have the technical expertise to realise the scam here.

I do not trust said cleaning tools or services unless they come from reputable vendors.

The insurance industry employs the term "write-off" when the cost of repairing or fixing something is greater than the cost of replacing it. In my mind, undoing the damage to an operating system a "good" (as in, highly effective) piece of malware can do is probably not worth the time and effort it takes unless you are (very) determined to learn about the infection and the behaviour of the malware. So I would write off the install in all likeliness.

That said, some malware is fairly simple and does not impact the system as badly as it could. In which case, a removal tool might well be all it takes to clean it. The problem is knowing that it is in fact just a simple piece of malware.

Further update: Based on this.josh's comment - a lot of malware I personally have seen has not been so advanced as to be incredibly difficult to remove. However, a common trend I have seen on infected PCs is for the PC to be infected with multiple pieces of malware, all doing different things. Often, a single initial infection seems often to be built entirely to do this. Tracking all of those pieces down and deducing whether they're part of a whole, or separate entities and what variant they are is a time-consuming process which keeps full time malware analysts employed at varying reputable vendors. I personally therefore have two questions of "malware removal" tools you find:

  • Do their authors have the same level of experience in removing malware as the likes of Symantec, McAfee etc?
  • Have their authors had the same amount of time to analyse the malware? I know how to use disassembler tools, but I can tell you the process of working out what something does from disassembly is one that takes a lot of time to learn and time to do even if you're an expert. I know because I'm not that great at it.

I have a hard time believing what appear to be "silver bullet" solutions.

Obviously there is a caveat to this - reputable companies offering virus cleaners (which happens sometimes) are likely to work and unlikely to be malicious. It's about making a judgement call as to how much you trust the author of the tool and how sure you are they are who they say they are. I would say, however, that it is known that some malware is capable of disabling reputable anti-malware products (although it isn't common) and that prevention is pretty much always preferable to cure.

Compare it to being burgled, if you've ever had the misfortune to have that happen. Some things are obviously missing, like the TV. However, to give a full list of what is missing and out of place is very hard to do - did they take X, or did you just leave it at someone else's house? Or in the car? Where's Y? The same applies to malware - a full account of the damage done is hard, especially as, just like thieves, each piece of malware is different. Like thieves, malware has some common traits, like targeting autorun methods so that is what makes it obvious there's been an intrusion, but as I say, fully accounting for everything is hard.

  • 1
    Excelent point that not all maleware removers are benign. Even if they do clean your machine they may look through your personal data. I understand that the OP left the scope very open, but how common is sophisticated malware infection? If the rate of embeding, self-modifying, and rootkit infection is low, I think you should point that out in your answer.
    – this.josh
    Commented Aug 23, 2011 at 2:02
  • @this.josh Really sophisticated malware doesn't attack people daily, although the last two pieces of really-hard-to-remove malware I've had to (try to) remove were both false antivirus products. What is more common in what I've seen on infected machines is to have multiple infections of a whole pile of different malware. Whilst not so deeply embedded, there's often still a whole lot of stuff and removing "the infection" as in becoming malware free is quite difficult.
    – user2213
    Commented Aug 23, 2011 at 10:42

It depends on how important the machine is. I know others say differently, but for my own machines, I always reinstall from scratch when I think something funny is going on. Given that AV scanners pick up only about 50% of malware on any given day (your stat may vary, but it's bad in any case), I'd be at least a little bit suspicious of removal tools too.

It also could be said to depend on the malware, if you believe that there are degrees of "owned" - although, given how easy it seems to be for determined attackers to escalate from a nonprivileged account, I'm not sure I believe in that concept myself.

Incidentally, you might consider reinstalling any VM guests that the malware would have had access to. I'd change passwords that have been typed into infected computers as well, including guests of infected hosts.

As I said, there are other reasonable answers to this question, but unless the box is pretty low-sensitivity, and is never used to access high-sensitivity resources, I'd probably just reinstall.

  • "reinstalling VM guests" - Why not just revert to a known good snapshot (even better if its from a backup)? Changing a snapshot of a VM sounds like a very targeted virus
    – TheLQ
    Commented Aug 23, 2011 at 19:29
  • @TheLQ - It's not about a targeted virus. It's about cloudburst style attacks where the malware is intentionally build to escape the VM and propagate to the host...I mean most of the time they have unadulterated access to the system(have to be at root/administrator level for frame injection) It's not what he said or meant, but it's where the real danger lies Commented Sep 16, 2011 at 21:52

My opinion, bare metal is it. I don't trust removal tools to get it all. This can be easily demonstrated. Even the US DoD now uses read only media for secure remote operations. Their theory, reboot before every secure transaction. I completely agree and have advocated this for years.

  • 2
    Agreed, I deal with hundred's of malware infections daily. The only way to remain truly safe is to DBAN the sucker.
    – detro
    Commented Aug 23, 2011 at 19:25

Both aren't safe options.

We don't need to talk about the removal tools, which might work sometimes, or work under special conditions (when run from a clean device).

But you will restore a system which got infected, so there is at least one main vulnerability left: your system and its applications or your behavior - maybe both.

  • Your answer is confusing. Are you saying that there is no way to make a system secure after it has been compromised?
    – this.josh
    Commented Aug 23, 2011 at 1:56
  • @user Yes, one has to keep in mind that some "reputable" software packages have been both intentional and unintentionally shipped with malware included in them. (See, for example, this story: news.cnet.com/2100-1001-935994.html .) If one of your favorite apps has something in it, there's a 0% chance formatting will work. On top of that, if you are the target of an attacker and format your computer without changing your IP (or if you allow him to see the new one,) he's just going to put his stuff right back on your machine. Formatting is an option, but definitely not 100% safe.
    – Michael
    Commented Aug 23, 2011 at 2:15
  • @this.josh: Not exactly. If it was your misbehaviour (you downloaded cracked software, fishy porn-apps, executed programs which you should not trust), than you have to stop this misbehaviour, or it will happen again. If it wasn't your misbehaviour, but an error in the system you're using, than restoring this vulnerable system will put you in an exposed position again. You might have more luck the next time. Or even less. Commented Aug 23, 2011 at 8:00
  • @Michael: Not just malware - vulnerabilities, which are exploited by malware is enough. And not only fav. apps, but OS too, and apps which you don't know, which are working in the background, or which you know, but wouldn't call favourite; for example AV-software, which stumbled over malicious archives. But your idea of visible IP is completely wrong. Commented Aug 23, 2011 at 8:04
  • @user-unknown I don't think the the Question requires you to re-install software with known vulnerablities.
    – this.josh
    Commented Aug 23, 2011 at 8:38

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