Check out your own posted link. It has a section where it describes in detail what you are asking for. With some modification this should also be applicable to column names.
find table names
Check out the following webpage sql-injection cheatsheet that should give enough ideas on how to achieve what you are looking for.
Here is an example for MySQL db (you will need to combine these with your payload e.g. ' union select ... and 1='1 or similar):
SELECT table_schema, table_name, column_name FROM
information_schema.columns WHERE table_schema != ‘mysql’ AND table_schema !=
SELECT table_schema,table_name FROM information_schema.tables
WHERE table_schema != ‘mysql’ AND table_schema != ‘information_schema’
Just google for sql-injection + cheatsheet + enumeration. That should give you plenty of additional information.