Like most answers relating to questions of this type, it depends. IP spoofing can make it very difficult to trace you, but it is not a guarantee someone won't be able to. It really depends where on the network the person who might want to trace you is. For example, if you did this from your ISP account or your company network and the administrators of networks notice and want to trace you, it is very likely they will, especially if they notice and start investigating while your still operational to do so. On the other hand, if you did this and used this technique to do something like a Dos/DDoS attack on a remote site, a lot would depend on the site. If it was a major government, military etc site in the same country, then it is likely they would have the resources and authority to get logs and other information and track you down. On the other hand, if it is a company without significant resources or in a different country, then it could be much more difficult to access the necessary information or obtain the amount of resources necessary to perform an investigation.
Normally, when someone wants to obscure their location, it will be necessary to use a number of techniques to make tracing difficult. For example, you might first compromise a remote system and use that system to initiate your activity rather than simply run it from your own machine. In general, the 'safe' approach is to always assume anything you do can be tracked and if you want to avoid this, you need to make the effort/expense of doing so too high compared to the value of identifying who/where you are.