Chrome natively stores passwords using the system provided by the OS to do secure storage. At least on Windows, the Windows secure store does not require authentication for any program to get a particular thing you stored. That means that Chrome prompting for a password to view the list of saved passwords is fundamentally just an annoyance to an attacker; it means they can't use Chrome to view all saved passwords, but if they can launch a program of their choice in the context of your user, they can easily launch one to access the secure store and get all Chrome passwords.
So long as Chrome uses the Windows secure store as its sole password protection mechanism on Windows, there is no way around that issue -- it's inherent to the design of the Windows secure store, which assumes anything a user runs is authorized access to their secure data. It might be different on other operating systems, if their secure storage systems require explicit approval and authentication for a program to access stored data; however, it's not something you can change from within Chrome.
If you want to use Chrome and don't want any other program to be able to access credentials, the only way is with a third-party password manager. Other browsers do things a bit differently (e.g. Firefox has its own master password, instead of using the OS's secure store), but that's the only way to do it with Chrome.