CERT C is specific guiance on writing "secure and resilient software in C and C++". The focus is on language specific advice on what to do and what not to do with what is a very powerful language that assumes you know what you are doing. Note that these languages are often used in writing low level code for infrastructure devices, or for embedded systems, so it is vital that they are well written.
PCI-DSS is specific to the payments industry and is a mixture of practice and policy statements that are not code specific. Worth reading if you store credit card information, or for general information on good security practice, but not directly related to you otherwise.
The CWE Top 25 is a list of the most common software mistakes made by people writing software regardless of language or purpose.
The OWASP Top 10 is the list of most common vulnerabilities in web based applications, which includes non-coded vulnerabilities.
NIST SAMATE is part of a software assurance framework. It details the processes and practices around ensuring that a software product does only what is intended, and is free from tampering.
So in short, DO use CERT C for your C and C++. And read and incorporate the Top x as appropriate to your software products.SAMATE is far bigger than your task at hand.
Last time I was starting out greenfields (2006) we used a book called "The Elements of C# Style" as our standards bible. We only used it to settle disputes where the team could not agree on an approach. I don't know if it reflects the latest version of C# though.