Yes. The virtual-machine (VM) hard-drive disk file is effectively a virtual disk file that holds a master boot record (MBR), partitions and file systems on the virtual disks are equal to an physical hard-drive.
A data storage device, like a physical hard drive, is only a raw device that stores data from zero to end, no format or anything. The format of the data is decided by the application (the operating system) storing data on the disk.
The same thing can be applied to an individual file. Thus, you can store a hard drive inside a hard drive inside a hard drive and so on (while the last one is the physical one).
The conclusion is, that you can securely delete data from a VM in the exact same way as you would do on a real system. You need to take in consideration which file system the guest operating system uses, since it might use journals and such, and sensitive data can leak that way if you do not wipe the data correctly.
Some VMs might also not flush changes to the virtual hard drive to real disk before shutdown, so if you want to do a secure wipe, you might need to wipe a 1 pass, then shutdown and start VM, wipe 1 pass again, and then shutdown and start VM, and do the final wipe pass.
Also take into consideration that the host OS might save journals and sensitive data of the actual VM virtual disk file. To solve this, I would suggest COPYING the completed VM disk file (eg where the sensitive file is wiped) to a new location, then wipe the old VM disk file, including any metadata like journals and such, and then copy the new file (the copy) back to its original location. Such a system could be coded with a batch script that you use every time you have securely wiped a file from a VM.
Note that if you do NOT have access to the host OS on the VM in question, then you might not be able to securely wipe files on VM at all. Then I would suggest encrypting the VM and when its time to say goodbye to your VM, you simply destroy the encryption key.