To verify, that the files I have downloaded using it are not corrupted.
No, FTP does not include integrity protection as a feature of the protocol. You can use SFTP which runs over SSH and does have built-in integrity checks (
scp is another option that uses SSH).
You can roll your own integrity protection by manually comparing a checksum calculated locally with one calculated either on the remote host itself or by the origin client who uploaded it. MD5 is a typical choice, and you can calculate the MD5 checksum by running
openssl md5 <file> on most Unix-like systems.
If you can't use SSH, hopefully that means you have no remote shell access at all. If that is true, then you would need to compute the checksum prior to uploading the file, then store it somewhere (e.g.
md5.txt) for future reference. That assumes that you are the one uploading the files which may not be the case.
If using SFTP, you will need to do this though SSH. Just a note!
But to answer the question, no ftp does not provide security (integrity) of any sort. It uses ports 20 and 21 which both transmit data openly.
With SFTP which is an SSH protocol port 22 is used.