It's a common practice online that instead of writing your email as [email protected] people will instead write it as someone AT example.com in an attempt to make it harder for web scrapers to find your email address on a web site.

Is this even that effective anymore? I would imagine anyone scraping the web for emails could just as easily check for a pattern like that and transform it to an email address.

I'm sure that some strategies of obscuring the email address are more effective than others, as not every combination that is legible to a human could be accounted for in a program, but common ones like the one I describe above could be found just as easily.

If trying to obfuscate an email, what kind of strategies could be used to ensure that a human reader can understand but a program would not? Couldn't the scraper just continue to be updated to understand new patterns as its author finds them?

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    Possibly useful/related question over on Stack Overflow.
    – kalina
    Commented Feb 18, 2015 at 20:30
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    This of course assumes that your email is going to be harvested from a web page and not through the large number of mobile apps that uploads contacts, hacked websites or the big botnets that snarf address books and legitimate emails.
    – wireghoul
    Commented Feb 18, 2015 at 22:37
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    You could use Googles Mailhide service: google.com/recaptcha/admin#mailhide It protects your email with a captcha
    – frugi
    Commented Feb 19, 2015 at 9:18
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    One comment I would make (applies to all the answers, basically). Bear in mind that whatever harms scrapers also genrally harms accessibility. Good luck text-to-speeching a rendered image, for example. Commented Feb 19, 2015 at 10:16

5 Answers 5


You've got multiple methods really, you should of course consider that such bots harvesting this content are essentially scraping whatever pages they come across and searching for patterns that look like email addresses. As you say, it's a bit of an arms race and there's nothing stopping the people developing such scrapers from implementing these methods (wait, is that why you're asking?)

You're going to want to avoid actually creating a hyperlink out of your email address in most cases, and you certainly want to avoid using mailto: - that's basically announcing to anybody reading the page "hey, I'm an email address".

Let's start of nice and simple, spacing:

m y e m a i l @ m y d o m a i n . c o m

It's obviously an email address to a human, looks like a bunch of random letters with spaces to a scraper. Don't like spacing? Much less common but far more foolproof is to convert your email address into an image. It's still human readable but it's not going to be something that most email scrapers are looking for, let alone able to parse.

How about converting your punctuation (@ and period) into their HTML equivalents (@ and . respectively)?


This still looks like an email address when rendered by the browser, but it isn't going to be all that difficult to work around from the point of view of scraping since you'd just look for the . and @ - but why stop there? Why not go all the way and just encode the entire email address? This can be done quite easily with a tool like Rumkin's Mailto Encoder, suddenly your email address looks like this:


This still renders like you'd expect in a browser, but is basically gibberish as far as any scraper that doesn't take the encoding into consideration.

You can also do this with CSS if you're so inclined with something like this:

  my-email::after { content: attr(data-domain); } 
  my-email::before { content: attr(data-user); }

<my-email data-user="myemail" data-domain="mydomain.com">@</my-email>

Or, as already discussed on Stack Overflow, you could just use JavaScript.

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    the term "Arms Race" describes what I was thinking- scrapers are just going to get better and better and eventually engulf most possibilities. What prompted me was a comment on a web site where someone didn't have the capability of editing the HTML or CSS of the rendered text. For those purposes, it seems to me that you'd have to be pretty creative to come up with a format that wouldn't be scraped, so it might not really be worth the effort.
    – DLeh
    Commented Feb 18, 2015 at 20:48
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    @DLeh It is an arms race in terms of what is possible to scrape, but remember that email scraping is not only a technical problem but an economic one. Is it technically feasible to download an image and run text recognition to see if it contains an email address? Absolutely. Is it economically prudent to spend the extra bandwidth and processing power to do it, compared to just scraping more text pages? Almost certainly not. Many workarounds just need to reach the point of "not worth the effort". Commented Feb 18, 2015 at 21:58
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    That is a good point. The more complex the logic to scrape, the more electrically expensive it is. So there may be value in obscuring your address after all!
    – DLeh
    Commented Feb 18, 2015 at 22:00
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    That CSS trick is pretty clever.
    – wchargin
    Commented Feb 18, 2015 at 22:12
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    @PatoSáinz Well, most users will choke on it too when they try to copy and paste it into their email client.
    – kapex
    Commented Feb 19, 2015 at 7:26

Hiding your email using javascript can only get you so far. There are two types of scraping engines that are used to collect data from a website.

Classic: The classic scraper is simply doing a GET request on the url and then parsing the HTML that is returned from the server.

  • Advantage: Has the advantage of quick data collection and higher throughput both from a bandwidth and processor perspective.
  • Disadvantage: It doesn't actually load the page in the way a browser does. Since there is no DOM loaded, any javascript based content will not be available to the scraper. This means that any of the methods mentioned by Flyk will work great when combatting these scrapers.

Browser Based: The browser based scrapers are a new breed of scraper and allow the engine to actually load the page into a "web browser". (some of these are headless - phantom.js)

  • Advantage: This type of scraper has the ability to effectively render a webpage and scrape the results exactly as they would appear to a user. This means that this type of scraper could read any emails that have been encoded with javascript.

  • Disadvantage: These scrapers are also much more complex to create and require a longer loading period and more bandwidth before a page can be scraped. For these reasons, many scrapers still just use the classic style of scraping.

In the end, it would be better to use javascript to encode your email address rather than just typing it in plain text. If you really want the best protection for your email, you should go with the method of creating an image of your email address.

Images can be read using OCR but the complexity is well beyond most scraping engines.


One fairly fool proof idea would be to include the e-mail address in an image vs. text. I would imagine this method could be defeated by a program that can read text in images, but it would be much harder to defeat than plain text.

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    Putting e-mail address in an image would be also effective measure against humans sending you emails. I'd probably give up sending email once I discover I have to type email address manually from image. It's like captcha, just more annoying (email addresses are typically longer than captcha phrases). Commented Feb 19, 2015 at 8:34

If trying to obfuscate an email, what kind of strategies could be used to ensure that a human reader can understand but a program would not?

An alternate solution (which does not display the email on the page) is to use a contact form with some captcha mechanism to prevent mass mailing.

You could add to this a an automatic reply from a real email address (one which can be saved as a contact).

  • I disagree highly with most of the content. I kinda agree about a captcha that then, when you get it right, it sends the url to an image which reveals the email. Otherwise, the captcha isn't what he wants Commented Feb 19, 2015 at 10:46
  • @IsmaelMiguel: this is why I am talking about an alternate solution (with the auto-reply part the email is still available to legitimate users)
    – WoJ
    Commented Feb 19, 2015 at 10:49
  • But the O.P. isn't asking about mass mailing. He is asking about hidding emails from scrappers. Commented Feb 19, 2015 at 11:02
  • I am not talking about mass mailing either. The comment on the captcha was to avoid it when using the form based solution (which itself is a possible alternative to exposing the mail address)
    – WoJ
    Commented Feb 19, 2015 at 11:39
  • I believe that the idea is to still show the email, but in an 'unscrappable' way. Sometimes, we have emails like '[email protected]', which the user needs to know which email is that. The captcha only presents that we don't send mass mail over POST/AJAX. Commented Feb 19, 2015 at 12:25

To be fair, the most secure method is to use an image of your email address as previously stated.

The main downside to the this is that if users have images disabled, they won't see it. This can be counter-acted, however, by in the HTML img alt="" alt tag, placing your email as HTML encoded characters: e.g. &#109;&#121;&#101;ma%69&#108;&#64;my%64%6fma%69&#110;%2e%63&#111;m.

Another downside would be that users cannot click on this... simply wrap the image in a mailto link, but that would totally negate the email address hiding from scrapers.

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    The mailto: was 'excluded' because it's obvious that it has an email there, and that data might be scrapped even if the scrapper doesn't understand it. Commented Feb 19, 2015 at 12:37
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    There's more downsides. Text readers will not be able to read it (there go your blind customers), changing font size will not change its size (there go your old customers), and of course it's still somewhat more work for you to maintain.
    – Luaan
    Commented Feb 19, 2015 at 12:51
  • Ismael, you can include the encoded version after mailto and that would stop it to an extent. Luaan, text readers can read from alt tags. Font size could be an issue, but you could have a Javascript work-aroun d so that when the font size is changed, it replaces the image with the text from the ALT tag. More work - yes, but you can have a server side script to generate an image by passing the email through the URL. Commented Feb 19, 2015 at 17:09

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