Assuming you have a list of possible recipients' public keys, and a ciphertext encrypted with one of those public keys, would it be possible to determine which public key?
It depends on a lot of things.
Let's consider a message encrypted by OpenPGP, the most used encryption standard. By default, it includes in plain text a field containing the key ID the message has been encrypted to. However, note that the OpenPGP standard allows for this field to be empty i.e. containing a key ID = 0x0. So the correct answer to your question is "It depends, if you have a ciphertext encrypted with OpenPGP it might be possible to find out the recipients."
The only way you could match a encrypted text to the key-pair it is used with would be to own the private key and successfully decipher the message. Apart from this, there is no telltale sign as to which public key has been used to, as any message could have been used for encryption.
Though, the protocol could tell you. For example, the OpenPGP protocol uses packet to identify the keys a message has to be used with. Or usually, the message is send to the recipient through mail, so the key has to be the key for this person.