Android disk encryption is based on
dm-crypt and is a full-disk encryption, meaning everything is encrypted using the same master secret. This is different from approach employed by iOS where different files are encrypted with different master secrets based on their protection classes. Effectively, all files on Android-encrypted disks share same protection class.
For older versions of Android (before 5.0) it was fairly easy to bruteforce the PIN so the protection wasn't great and I would rate it to be on-par with
NSFileProtectionNone class in iOS.
5.0 introduced improvements to combat offline bruteforce and now whole thing is much closer to
NSFileProtectionCompleteUntilFirstUserAuthentication. But please note that because Android's disk encryption is FDE and there's only one master key, it will never be equivalent to
NSFileProtectionComplete — because Android won't be able to purge master secret from memory when user locks the device (otherwise none of background services will be able to access any data).
There is an excellent write-up on the Android FDE here (and if you're into Android security in general that blog offers tons of valuable information).