Unfortunately not the way you are thinking. But things are never simple on information security.
Most of phones that I'm aware of, does not let you select a specific tower you want to connect. This is a usual GUI for Android:
and the relevant ones on Engineering mode GUI:
Why you want WCDMA only
There are others too, but I won't add here since it's not relevant to what you want to accomplish.
An attacker can pretend to be any carrier, so selecting your phone to only connect to Verizon for example, does not add security since the attacker can just pretend to be a Verizon tower.
The other sections (3G service, preferences and access point names are also irrelevant to security).
When you really think about, it should be simple to prevent these attacks...should the carrier make their tower locations public and giving you the ability to manually select which tower your device you will connect you would be safe. If phones also could recognize when a tower just pop up from nowhere and refuse to connect to it would be good too. Often attackers use airplanes or vehicles to carry the rogue tower and this also should be a big red flag for a phone (how many legit carrier towers are there that can move around?)
Resuming there are few things you, as user can do to protect yourself from these attacks.
But very often when you are under attack of a rogue tower, they will try to force you to use 2G, since it can be decrypted in real time (unlike 3G/4G) and you can tell your phone to only use 3G/4G like I did. This is the only thing I think you can do as user. Using a VPN for your mobile data is a good additional layer of security too.
I'm not aware of any other OS for phones that allow you to select more things than this option sadly.
But the most dangerous attacks from rogue tower is the SMS they can send you silently and with malicious payloads. So far a advanced user could try to mess with their OS so much that they can't receive or process SMS anymore but I don't know how feasible or effective this would be.
The only thing you can do to protect your calls is to use a VOIP that uses encryption, like Whatsapp functionality to call over internet. That would be secure even if they downgrade you to 2G. (Note that Whatsapp is owned by Facebook)
So far there is some open-source effort to defend against this...like Android IMSI-Catcher Detector
You know what is funny? After I selected WCDMA only, I never used 2G again. I used to get downgraded to 2G a lot, but since I live in a developing country I doubt that was the government flying planes over cities to mass interception like they do all the time in US. I think it was just my Carrier doing traffic shaping to me...so you can as well get a better mobile data if you deny 2G!