Questions tagged [certificate-authority]

A Certificate Authority is the collection of hardware, software, and people responsible for issuing certificates in a hierarchical PKI. CAs may be public, as in SSL / TLS and government IDs, or private, as in corporate infrastructures. The primary responsibility of a public CA is to verify the identity of an applicant before issuing them a certificate.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
76
votes
5answers
31k views

Are there any downsides to using Let's Encrypt for a website's SSL certificates?

On the advantages side, I see several benefits to using the Let's Encrypt service (e.g., the service is free, easy to setup, and easy to maintain). I'm wondering what, if any, are the disadvantages to ...
30
votes
1answer
11k views

How does OCSP stapling work?

I've been looking into OCSP stapling for HTTPS, which looks pretty interesting. From what I can tell, it's essentially a way of offloading CRLs from the CA to the server, allowing for everything to be ...
34
votes
6answers
9k views

Does it matter which Certificate Authority I source my SSL Certificate from?

To secure my web site with HTTPS, does it matter which company I source my SSL certificate from, or just that the browser recognizes it? From the Area51 proposal.
25
votes
4answers
19k views

SSL root certificate optional?

I may have been under the wrong impression on how servers should be setup and what certificates actually get sent over during the server hello certificate message. I came across this today from ...
21
votes
2answers
3k views

How much of a problem is it that Windows “hides” some of the trusted root CA certs?

Based on information on this page, Windows actually trusts many more root CA certificates than what are displayed when a user launches certmgr.msc and navigates to Trusted Root Certification ...
18
votes
2answers
7k views

How secure is “Let's Encrypt”? [duplicate]

I just configured and installed a free SSL certificate from Let's Encrypt. It's great, and very easy to set up. However in this post-Snowden era, I was wondering how secure this really is. For ...
16
votes
5answers
6k views

Multiple CAs signing a single Cert/CSR?

Just saw this suggested on Slashdot So I've seen quite a few people wanting a switch to self-signed certs (who IMO mostly don't understand what making that secure actually involves), and an idea to ...
9
votes
2answers
1k views

I want trusted SMIME certificates for 3rd parties. Is this a reasonable configuration?

I want to send out SMIME certificates with my emails, and want to deploy the following PKI Root01 (All EKU, All Constrants, No Restrictions) PolicyInt01 (Internal applications, not trusted by 3rd ...
4
votes
3answers
7k views

In order to trust the digital certificate, does immediate CA cert also needs to be in trust store or root CA cert is enough?

In order to trust the digital certificate, does immediate CA certificate also needs to be in trust store or root CA certificate is enough?
4
votes
1answer
2k views

How to trust a CA to sign a CRL but not a cert?

In my application, there are many parties that are trusted to revoke a cert (ie by signing a CRL), but are not trusted to sign (new) certs. How do I mark a CA to be trusted only for CRLs, and not for ...
18
votes
1answer
2k views

Why don't browsers check CAA records to help ensure a certificate is valid?

If I understand correctly, Certification Authority Authorization DNS records are used to specify which certificate authorities are allowed to issue certificates for a given domain. If that record ...
14
votes
2answers
22k views

How is an X509 certificate signer verified?

Lets say I create a self-signed X509 certificate A and use it to issue certificate B. I put certificate A in my trusted root authorities so that all certificates signed by it are accepted. My question ...
5
votes
1answer
5k views

google certificates correct CA [closed]

I view certificates of https://www.google.com.ua/ So I thought, when requesting via cURL, if I point by CURLOPT_CAINFO to those certificates (GeoTrust Global CA and Google Internet Authority G2 in ...
4
votes
3answers
3k views

Self-signed cert - how it works

I am new to SSL / digital certificates / signatures. What I know is that a digital signature must be verified/decrypted using the public key. So a cert that is signed by a CA must be verified/...
19
votes
5answers
4k views

What is the difference between http and https with a self-signed SSL certificate?

A colleague of mine has told me he doesn't see why there is a warning when visiting a HTTPS website with a self-signed certificate saying that the security may be compromised, but there is no warning ...
15
votes
3answers
15k views

Why is my Positive SSL certificate deemed insecure by Google Chrome? [duplicate]

We run a website over HTTPS with a wildcard certificate from Positive SSL. Today, when I opened Google Chrome (v. 42.0.2311.90 m) and navigated to the site, I noticed a red cross through the https ...
6
votes
4answers
7k views

Does http support encryption without https (like STARTTLS)?

Does http support encryption without https, akin to STARTTLS in smtp? This may sound like a stupid question, but just think about it. Banks require strong encryption, and cannot do business without ...
3
votes
3answers
3k views

Where can I find all SSL CA certificates

I am working on an SSL implementation project and ofcourse I need to verify the certificate presented by the server. To do that I need CA certificates or at least root CA certificates (correct me I am ...
2
votes
1answer
4k views

How to extend x509 certificate validity

I have two x509certificate, and now they are expired. What I would do is to extend the validity date of these certificates (I don't want t creat new one). Can I do this with openssl or other tools ?
8
votes
2answers
3k views

How to become an internationally recognized certificate authority (CA)?

What's the procedure a certificate authority (CA) must follow to get internationally recognized, like Verisign or GlobalSign?
6
votes
6answers
9k views

How can I know that the CA certificates in my computer have not been spoofed?

As far as I know, the browser contains the certificates of several CA. When I access http://gmail.com, the site says it is Gmail, it exposes a certificate signed by one of the CA I have in my ...
5
votes
8answers
3k views

Does Self-signed certificate differ from CA from a security point of view?

I know that if I use self-signed cert, browsers will warn about it to the user, but I want to know that from security viewpoint is self-signed cert as secure as certificate authority(CA)?
4
votes
1answer
225 views

How is Root CA installed on a client machine when it connects first time to a server?

I read about server authentication over web and got to know that issuer Root CA should be imported into Trusted Root CA on both server and client machines for mutual authentication. Now let's say it ...
4
votes
1answer
5k views

Certificate verified using two different paths

StartSSL has an intermediate certificate that they use to sign their EV certificates: sub.class4.server.ca.pem. This certificate's issuer is shown by openssl x509 to be /C=IL/O=StartCom Ltd./OU=...
3
votes
1answer
528 views

Is there an online public list of generally trusted certificate authorities?

Six months ago or so, I thought I saw a reference to a web site that managed a current list of trusted certificate authorities. I can't find the reference any more. What I'm looking for is an ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

X.509 certificate renew vs. rekey

What is the difference from CA perspective between renewal and rekeying of the certificate previously issued by this CA?
3
votes
1answer
6k views

How does an offline CA revoke certificates?

If an RSA private key of a root CA is stored offline, how does it revoke certificates it signs? From looking at OpenSSL config the default_crl_days option seems to indicate that a CRL must be ...
3
votes
2answers
633 views

Explicitly prohibit an intermediate CA certificate on OpenSSL

How do you explicitly not trust a particular certificate (especially, CA certificate) for OpenSSL? On NSS-based applications, one can install the cert with trustarg p: prohibited (explicitly ...
14
votes
1answer
3k views

Is it safe to let apt-get applications install root certificates?

I've recently installed Pinta, a program for drawing and image editing, and as part of the installation it installed 173 root certificates (see below). Is it normal practice to do so? Why does it ...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

Browsers silently adding trusted root certificates in Windows

When accessing https://internetbanking.caixa.gov.br (site of a well known bank in Brazil), the server returns a certificate signed by "Autoridade Certificadora Raiz Brasileira" (Brazilian Root ...
5
votes
4answers
1k views

Should name constraints be present on a subordinate CA issued to an organization?

I was looking at Google's Internet Authority G2. Its a subordinate CA (critical, CA:TRUE, pathlen:0) certified by GeoTrust. The dump is below. Presumably, GeoTrust certified that CA for Google so ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Can a SSL Certificate dictate protocol?

I know you can set the protocol/cipher via your web server: Nginx: ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2; ssl_ciphers HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5; Apache: SSLProtocol all -SSLv2 SSLCipherSuite ...
4
votes
1answer
186 views

New certificate but what about the keys?

One of our SSL certificates has expired and along with that so has the keys. I have a re-newed certificate but no re-newed keys. The posting Should I change the private key when renewing a ...
4
votes
3answers
2k views

Is it possible to modify a CA without having to reissue all of the derived certificates?

Background: I have my own authoritative certificate that I generated myself for signing certificates for services my friends and I use, including web server, ircd, etc. It's convenient because I don'...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

Can I buy a signing-valid certificate for internal use?

So now that I have to implement "secure transport" as defined by The Direct Project (not to mention reinventing a bunch of wheels, but that's another story for SO), I find myself staring down the ...
2
votes
1answer
669 views

Security Certificates - Tools to Generate Security Certificates

I want to create a self-signed certificate that will be installed as a trusted certificate authority. I then want to create another two certificates which are signed using the private key of the self-...
1
vote
1answer
8k views

What is the purpose of the CA-BUNDLE on a webserver?

So I purchase a certificate from DigiCert. The process goes like this: Generate private key and CSR on web server. Submit CSR to DigiCert. Get a signed certificate back as well as their root ...
1
vote
2answers
4k views

Create client certificates using signed certificate

We have a proper signed server certificate and intermediate CA from a trusted certificate authority. Is it true that we cannot use this certificate (so the intermediate CA) for creating our own ...
0
votes
1answer
160 views

Why would a commercial CA issue dup root?

I just ran across a keystore (generated and managed using IBM's GSKit) that has two root certificates with the same Subject DN and same key: Subject : "CN=Entrust.net Certification Authority (2048),...
0
votes
3answers
448 views

What parts of an SSL Certificate can I share without revealing the Certificate Authority's identity?

I want to share information and screenshots of my SSL certificate to help identify a potential security issue. The potential security issue involves private company-owned computers which list my ...
88
votes
4answers
16k views

What prevents me from buying a SSL certificate for a domain I don't control?

Can I simply build a webserver, make its hostname "google.com", create a CSR off that server, and send that to a Certificate Authority for signing? Let's say I pick the cheapest and dodgiest outfit I ...
42
votes
4answers
11k views

What alternatives are there to the existing Certificate Authority system for SSL?

Whilst the current CA system works very well for a lot of people, it does put a lot of power into individual CAs' hands, and makes a CA hack potentially devastating for customers and business. What ...
61
votes
4answers
9k views

Is there a way to make sure my government does not swap out SSL certificates?

I was recently wondering whether there exists a way to make sure my government is not swapping out SSL certificates in order to intercept the traffic. I know almost all browsers are complaining in ...
41
votes
7answers
5k views

Is there any legitimate reason to install yourself as a root CA?

Follow up from comments on another question. Is there any reason as to why you might install yourself as a root CA on your own network? The only reason I can think of is forcing computers in the ...
34
votes
4answers
5k views

Can any CA sign any domain?

Can any CA sign any cert for any domain? If the answer is yes, what prevents having two different CAs creating a valid cert for the same domain? Does that mean that the whole TLS security has the ...
33
votes
1answer
70k views

Can a CSR be created in OpenSSL with SHA2?

Can a CSR be created in OpenSSL with SHA2? If so, what would the command be and what does this tell the CA, if anything? If you could create a CSR using SHA2 would it "tell" the signing CA to use it ...
9
votes
4answers
13k views

Clarifying self-signed certificates vs root certificate authority

I hope someone can help me understand some fundamentals on SSL certificates that I've had trouble picking up from docs, Wikipedia, and just about everywhere else on the internet. I'm working on an ...
19
votes
1answer
15k views

Getting a Root CA accepted in systems and browsers

I would like to ask about the procedures for a given CA to get one of its root CAs (SSL issuance CA) to get accepted and installed as a trusted root CA in operating systems and browsers.
20
votes
4answers
9k views

Can an intermediate CA be trusted like a self-signed root CA?

Is it possible within the limits of the X.509 specification to mark an intermediate CA as trusted for a specific purpose, e.g. to verify a VPN, HTTPS etc. server key, just like it would work with a ...
23
votes
3answers
7k views

What happens when an Intermediate CA is revoked?

Currently I’m working on a certificate manager that allows our product to securely connect to remote web services (over TLS/SSL). For security, we use Certificate Revocation List checking (or CRL-...