Questions tagged [certificate-authority]

A Certificate Authority is the collection of hardware, software, and people responsible for issuing certificates in a hierarchical PKI. CAs may be public, as in SSL / TLS and government IDs, or private, as in corporate infrastructures. The primary responsibility of a public CA is to verify the identity of an applicant before issuing them a certificate.

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42
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4answers
11k views

What alternatives are there to the existing Certificate Authority system for SSL?

Whilst the current CA system works very well for a lot of people, it does put a lot of power into individual CAs' hands, and makes a CA hack potentially devastating for customers and business. What ...
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4answers
10k views

Is there a way to make sure my government does not swap out SSL certificates?

I was recently wondering whether there exists a way to make sure my government is not swapping out SSL certificates in order to intercept the traffic. I know almost all browsers are complaining in ...
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7answers
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Is there any legitimate reason to install yourself as a root CA?

Follow up from comments on another question. Is there any reason as to why you might install yourself as a root CA on your own network? The only reason I can think of is forcing computers in the ...
34
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4answers
5k views

Can any CA sign any domain?

Can any CA sign any cert for any domain? If the answer is yes, what prevents having two different CAs creating a valid cert for the same domain? Does that mean that the whole TLS security has the ...
33
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1answer
70k views

Can a CSR be created in OpenSSL with SHA2?

Can a CSR be created in OpenSSL with SHA2? If so, what would the command be and what does this tell the CA, if anything? If you could create a CSR using SHA2 would it "tell" the signing CA to use it ...
22
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1answer
15k views

Getting a Root CA accepted in systems and browsers

I would like to ask about the procedures for a given CA to get one of its root CAs (SSL issuance CA) to get accepted and installed as a trusted root CA in operating systems and browsers.
21
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4answers
10k views

Can an intermediate CA be trusted like a self-signed root CA?

Is it possible within the limits of the X.509 specification to mark an intermediate CA as trusted for a specific purpose, e.g. to verify a VPN, HTTPS etc. server key, just like it would work with a ...
23
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3answers
7k views

What happens when an Intermediate CA is revoked?

Currently I’m working on a certificate manager that allows our product to securely connect to remote web services (over TLS/SSL). For security, we use Certificate Revocation List checking (or CRL-...
7
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2answers
28k views

How to go about an SSL certificate renewal

I've got an SSL certificate from GoDaddy, and it's time to renew. I ended up with a single "keystore" file, which I give to my webserver (Jetty). This is the process I went through to generate the ...
22
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4answers
5k views

Why does Facebook serve several SSL certificates?

Facebook seems to be alternately serving two SSL certificates, one from DigiCert and one from VeriSign. There are only two reasons for this that I can think of: They're in the middle of a certificate ...
11
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1answer
19k views

Root certificate key usage (non-self-signed end entity)

This discussion does not include self-signed end entity certificates for hosts like web servers and mail servers. OpenSSL's default configuration for a CA certificate has the following keyUsage: ...
5
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2answers
9k views

How TLS certificate chain is verified

Assume the verification of a TLS certificate chain. Suppose the chain has certificates A-B-C-D where D is the root certificate and A is signed by B, B by C, C by D. Suppose the intermediate ...
14
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3answers
388 views

Domain name expiration and TLS

If I purchase a domain name that has expired, do I have any assurance that the previous owner does not have a valid HTTPS certificate for the site? In other words, do CAs check domain name expiration ...
14
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2answers
9k views

Are certificate authorities required to obey to the signature algorithm (hashing) specified in the CSR?

I was playing a little bit with signature algorithms, trying to determine which CAs among the ones I use are currently issuing SHA2 certificates. I generated a CSR specifying the SHA256 hash (either ...
11
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1answer
6k views

TLS 39 month certificate limit and Chrome's NET::ERR_CERT_VALIDITY_TOO_LONG error

Late last year the CA/Browser Forum decided to limit the maximum valid term of TLS/SSL certificates issued after 1 April 2015. After this time, as the official guidelines put it.. CAs SHALL NOT ...
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2answers
5k views

How to detect the NSA MITM attack on SSL?

As Bruce Schneider reported here... https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2013/09/new_nsa_leak_sh.html ...the NSA reportedly performed a MITM attack on a company in brazil and decrypted their SSL ...
3
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1answer
6k views

Comparison and difference between CAs

While doing some Google searches, I learnt that there are a lot of different Certification Authorities like the Windows role named "Active Directory Certificate Services", the OpenSSL library or the ...
17
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2answers
6k views

When you buy a certificate, does the certificate authority have (a copy of) the private key?

I always assumed that the process for getting a (trusted, not self-signed) certificate was more or less like this: You generate a public and private key pair From this key pair you generate a ...
10
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2answers
1k views

What happened with Kazakhstan's Root CA MITM policy?

In 2015 there were news that Kazakhstan was going to start intercepting all HTTPS traffic via "man-in-the-middle attack" starting Jan 1, 2016, by requiring kazakhstanis to install their root CA. ...
9
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3answers
854 views

On-line cryptographically signed date/time?

I’m looking for a source of on-line cryptographically signed date/time. I do not need a full timestamp service, as I am happy with the information « date/time was that », without a link to a challenge/...
9
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2answers
2k views

security of PKI, Certificates, certificate authorities, forward secrecy

I want to understand how certificates add to the security of information exchange. Suppose i have a encrypted bidirectional connection between Alice and Bob, using a public key/private key pair. As ...
7
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1answer
6k views

Can a certificate have multiple chains and multiple self-signed roots?

The following MSFT document has this paragraph: All possible certificate chains are built using locally cached certificates. If none of the certificate chains ends in a self-signed certificate,...
6
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1answer
8k views

AIA/CRL locations for Offline Root

I've read the answer to the following "Checklist on building an Offline Root & Intermediate Certificate Authority (CA)" and I have one questions based on the system I am trying building It's an ...
16
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1answer
4k views

Renewing Microsoft Certificate Services Root Certificate

We currently have Microsoft Enterprise Certificate Server installed on a domain member machine which issues 1 year certificates to users for authenticating to VPN. We'd like to start issuing web ...
11
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2answers
16k views

Internal SSL Certificates?

As a developer I really like the idea of using OpenSSL to get perfectly good, free, SSL certs. Unfortunately, from all the research/analysis I've done so far, it doesn't look like there is any way to ...
10
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4answers
1k views

How does “Let's Encrypt” provide authenticity?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Let's_Encrypt https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_security#Authenticity AFAIK with "Let's Encrypt", we could create HTTPS websites with only one command. ...
7
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1answer
5k views

What OID Issuance Policies are appropriate for SmartCard and Browser Certificates?

I'm investigating issuance policies for SMIME and Browser certificates with different levels of assurance. For the purposes of S/MIME and Browser certificates, should I even use an assurance policy? ...
7
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6answers
2k views

Should the bit-strength selection of a child certificate be influenced by the CA or the chain?

All things being equal; suppose I have a CA chain that has 1024 bits of RSA encryption. Does this mean that my selection of a child CA or WebServer certificate gains no benefit from a higher level of ...
6
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4answers
5k views

Is it possible to create a self signed certificate authority?

Would it be possible to create a legitimate certificate with the CA bit set? I dont have a usecase associated with this, I'm merely curious. To explain my question : Suppose I sign a public key(...
4
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1answer
4k views

Purpose of certificates signed and trusted by CA

Another newbie question but I just don't get the purpose of certificates signed and trusted by CA. We already have public/private keys, hash functions to sign/encrypt messages so why do we need ...
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2answers
15k views

Unrecognized leaf certificate

Every 15 minutes or so I get this message in my system.log Apr 25 22:05:36 Ivans-MacBook-Pro.local apsd[194]: Unrecognized leaf certificate Apr 25 22:20:57 Ivans-MacBook-Pro.local apsd[194]: ...
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2answers
1k views

SSL Certificate Trust Model

I have been looking at the SSL Certificate Trust Model, and there is something that does not make sense. If I am correct, the trust model makes it that if there is a chain of certificates with a ...
15
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4answers
8k views

What are the risks of a localhost signed cerificate?

In our company we have an internal CA certificate for signing various things including the proxied (MITM'd) HTTPS connections. Suppose we use this CA to sign a key for "localhost" for use in ...
13
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3answers
1k views

Should I be concerned that Google no longer trusts specific Symantec root CA cert that is also on my Windows system?

This is related to this other question which refers to Google moving to distrust the "Class 3 Public Primary CA" root certificate operated by Symantec Corporation, across Chrome, Android, and Google ...
12
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2answers
4k views

Obtaining an S/MIME certificate without disclosing my private key to the TTP

I would like to obtain a trusted S/MIME certificate, but all the certificate authorities I have asked so far generate the keypair on their server, sign the certificate and send me both the private key ...
12
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4answers
3k views

What kinds of SSL certificates are usable for encryption?

I know that Verizon SSL certificates cost close to $600. There are couple of cheap alternatives, but I never really understood why Verizon does not offer such certificates. Look for RapidSSL at ...
10
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1answer
708 views

Why can the validity of an SSL certificate exceed the registration period of a domain?

I can understand why one might desire to purchase a certificate for multiple years but I am left wondering why it appears to be possible to obtain a valid certificate for a domain that may have come ...
10
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2answers
7k views

What is an intermediate certificate authority?

What is meant by an "intermediate certificate authority?"
9
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4answers
3k views

Certificate authorities for a PKI

Some people think the certificate authorities for a PKI should be the government, but others think certificate authorities should be private entities, such as banks, corporations, or schools. What are ...
7
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2answers
3k views

Is cacert.org more harmful than self-signing?

I don't understand the https security model attempted upon me by The OpenBSD Journal (undeadly.org). Instead of using self-signed certificates for https like they did in the past, they for a while ...
5
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1answer
463 views

How will Certificate Transparency be enforced?

The Chrome team has announced that "[they]’ll be moving forward with [their] plan to require Certificate Transparency for all newly issued, publicly trusted certificates starting in April 2018." It's ...
5
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2answers
474 views

Why firefox shows some connections are not secure?

I am using internet by connecting mobile phone to my laptop using usb. From yesterday,my browser (firefox) shows for all most all website. Why this happen? How can i solve this?
5
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2answers
13k views

TLS-RSA vs TLS-ECDHE-RSA vs static DH

I understand there are a lot of articles explaining this subject and, before I post my question, this is my current understanding about it: ECDHE-RSA = The server randomly generates a DH-key pair ...
5
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2answers
994 views

Can a website have multiple valid TLS certs looping back to multiple root CAs in case one of them is compromised?

Sometimes, CAs get compromised, like Diginotar or Comodo. In such an incident, anything can happen from individual certs being revoked to the entire tree being scrubbed from the cert store. A company ...
5
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1answer
2k views

Issuing and managing large numbers of certificates for client authentication

I am developing an Internet of Things product and plan to use client certificate authentication, issuing each "thing" its own certificate on the production line so that it may authenticate with a ...
3
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1answer
3k views

How do I get a third-party-signed ssl client certificate?

I've been given a requirement of providing a client certificate to authenticate between two application's web services. The other application (that I don't host) is requiring an SSL client certificate ...
14
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4answers
28k views

Do I really need all these Certificate Authorities in my browser or in my keychain?

There are lots of strange looking Certificate Authorities in my keychain as well as Firefox. I am sure they are legitimate CAs (as they are the same on my Mac and PC and other computers I checked). ...
13
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2answers
3k views

Is StartSSL.com a trustworthy site? [closed]

I just got the following email: Dear StartCom customers, This electronic mail message was created by StartCom's Administration Personnel: StartCom, a leading global Certificate ...
13
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2answers
7k views

What happens when certificates further up the chain expires before mine? (Equifax/GeoTrust)

I just bought a certificate from RapidSSL. Looking up the chain, I found GeoTrust who is signed by Equifax. Then I realized that the ”Equifax Secure Certificate Authority” is due to expire on 2018-08-...
11
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1answer
223 views

How CA ensures that a certificate request is coming from me?

To establish trusted SSL connection I need to create a certificate request. For example, if I use openSSL I can do it by the following command: openssl req -new -key privkey.pem -out cert.csr Anyone ...