Questions tagged [ciphers]

In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure. An alternative, less common term is encipherment. To encipher or encode is to convert information into cipher or code.

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P-384 vs. SHA384

Forgive my inexperience with encryption, I've been researching this for the better part of the morning and still cannot find a smoking gun answer. A vendor is requesting that we verify a website we ...
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How do different types of cyphers relate together? [migrated]

I understand that there are symmetric and asymmetric (public-key) cyphers. The first have the same key used for encryption and decryption, while the second use a public key for encryption and a ...
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Does any real world protocol makes use of the associated data in AEAD?

I'm trying to find evidence of use of the associated data (authenticated cleartext associated with the encrypted and authenticated data) feature offered by AEAD (Authenticated Encryption with ...
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Which cipher is more secure TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA or TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384?

TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA supports forward secrecy but it doesn't use GCM mode and use SHA1 TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 uses GCM mode and SHA2 but it doesn't support forward secrecy. ...
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Java support for TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CCM

My test tool uses java and I need it to use TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CCM. Does standard java (Oracle) support CCM cipher suites? I am seeing oracle links mentioning CCM but am not able to make it work....
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How do I remove/disable the CBC cipher suites in Apache server? [migrated]

I tried the settings below to remove the CBC cipher suites in Apache server, SSLProtocol -all +TLSv1.2 +TLSv1.3 SSLCipherSuite ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-...
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Can we add TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 on windows server 2012 using gpedit although not supported by windows OS by default?

We are using IIS on Windows 2012-R2 server to host dotnet apps. From the app, when we try connecting to an external 3rd party api we see TLS handshake failure. On running ssllabs test on that api, I ...
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Why does `openssl ciphers -v eNULL` list `TLS_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256` (and similar)?

I hope this question is on-topic: Learning about the eNULL "encryption" and the related warning, I wanted to list all ciphers than include eNULL: ~> openssl ciphers -v eNULL ...
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Why can't you use True Random Number Generator (TRNG) to generate key stream in Stream Ciphers?

I read in the book that you cannot use True Random Number Generator (TRNG) to generate key stream in Stream Ciphers: We need some type of random number generator to derive the key stream. First, we ...
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How does a Cipher Suite Work without an Asymmetric Algorithm? [closed]

Using the cipher suite “TLS_AES_128_CCM_SHA256” This example is referring to a self signed certificate If a server uses TLS and uses the cipher suite above? How does the certificate get signed if ...
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Create a vigenere cipher encryption

I have a question about the Vigenere cipher and still do not know how to solve it. A language has an alphabet of only 4 letters with frequencies as follow: Pa=40%, Pb=20%, Pc=10% and Pd=30%. Create ...
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Cipher, for a rookie, what's safe and not safe 2021?

I'm a rookie in the cipher world, and I'm setting up squid as an TLS proxy. in an example it uses: cipher=EECDH+ECDSA+AESGCM:EECDH+aRSA+AESGCM:EECDH+ECDSA+SHA384:EECDH+ECDSA+SHA256:EECDH+aRSA+SHA384:...
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How to tell what encryption a ransomware uses

I recently was attacked by a ransomware that encrypted files in my computer and turning them into a .CRYSTAL file type. In the ransom note there is a “key id” which resembles a public key of sort, and ...
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What is the relation between cipher suite and certificate? [duplicate]

I generated my self signed certificate using openssl and I chose ECC keys (prime 256v1) for root certificate but while authenticating with the server i.e. IBM cloud and my device the negotiated cipher ...
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Do you rather trust a widely adopted algorithm or an underdog if they're cryptoanalytically on a level playingfield?

If it comes to the security a hashing or encryption algorithm provides, we never know the full story. There's that part that we (respectively the public research) understand and can reason about, but ...
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Best resource to verify weak cipher suites [closed]

Many tools enable to list accepted ciphers but not all of them verify if these ciphers are secure. For example, Nmap with script ssl-enum-ciphers ranks some ciphers as secure even though actually this ...
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dm-crypt 2.0.3 + luks: salt auto-generated? what affects decryption speed?

I am trying to encrypt one of my primary Linux partition (5GB) by following this example to encrypt. I want to confirm some of my understandings: Salt is automatically generated by cyrptsetup with ...
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Site use weak cipher and TLS older version

I just tested a site and it looks like the certificate uses weak ciphers but the certificate is new. Can this issue be related to the Certification Authority that provides the certificate? Or this ...
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Qualys SSL Scan weak cipher suites which are secure according to ciphersuite.info

I am testing my application SSL configuration in Qualys SSL Labs and as a result, I have this cipher suites labeled as weak: But according to https://ciphersuite.info/ all of these cipher suites are ...
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Is it possible to crack a laptop's encrypted hard disk?

In a talk about a lost or stolen laptop, it is said that: even with hard drive encryption, eventually they can crack these secrets But strong encryption is practically impossible to break. For ...
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Did The Wire invent the "Jump 5" cipher?

N.B. Asking this here instead of Movies.SE because I'm wanting to know about the cipher itself and any history, which this site is more suitable for. In S01E05 of The Wire, at around 45:00, it's ...
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Help identify a simple, reversible cipher/encryption algorithm [duplicate]

I'm trying to help a small business transition out of an obsolete, obscure piece of software, and app support is, unfortunately, non-existent. To fully export the data for the new system, I need to be ...
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TLS client does not drop connection even when there are no suitable ciphersuites in the server ciphersuite list during handshake

I have two Windows systems, and I want to establish an encrypted TCP/IP communication between them. Specifically TLS 1.2 or TLS 1.3. I have configured in both systems the list of allowed ciphersuites: ...
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how do i find the number of possible keys / password to decrypt a plain text

I would like to know if there is any way to recover the plain-text of a message that's been encrypted with 55 rounds of the Caesar cipher, with a different (independently chosen) key for each round; I ...
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OpenSSH: Meaning of cipher with email address @openssh.com

When using OpenSSH server (sshd) we specify allowed ciphers, host key algorithms and MACs. Some of those ciphers have an email address appended, for example aes256-gcm@openssh.com as opposed to aes256-...
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Remove less secure ciphers from WHM by decrpyting different convoluted references to the same ciphers

I have previously removed less secure ciphers from WHM (Web Host Manager) however it has been a while and I want to learn how to fish, not be handed a fish. The trouble seems to stem from the fact ...
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6 votes
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Why is the BCrypt text "OrpheanBeholderScryDoubt"

I'm looking for a reference about the weird initial BCrypt text "OrpheanBeholderScryDoubt" Why was this string used? Would using 192 zeros or ones not have worked well in practice for some reason? ...
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What is a LUKS cipher-name "@"?

In analyzing the LUKS header on an encrypted volume, the cipher-name field shows a single-character = '@'. What does that mean? The LUKS On-Disk Format Specification originally published by Clemens ...
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What is the difference between "cipher" and "encryption"?

It seems as if they are either synonyms, or cipher was an older term for when they directly translated the same number (or almost same number) of "encrypted" characters into the same number of ...
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How would anyone ever break even this basic, amateurish cipher/encryption scheme?

This question was prompted by a long Wikipedia session with me reading tons of articles on cryptography, causing far more questions than it answered. Let's say that I and another person know each ...
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What exactly was "'dotty' and 'dashy'" Morse code?

During early World War I (1914–1916), Germany briefly experimented with 'dotty' and 'dashy' Morse, in essence adding a dot or a dash at the end of each Morse symbol. Each one was quickly broken by ...
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Disable vulnerable cipher suites

As a part of my learning, I installed OpenVAS into one of our Ubuntu test servers and scan the said server. I have the results and I wanted to remediate the findings as part of my learning the Linux ...
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2 votes
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Why does the NodeJS Crypto docs use CBC instead of GCM for RSA key-pair?

I have read that GCM is almost always more secure than CBC when implemented correctly. However, in the documentation of NodeJS, CBC is being used as an example instead. The key-pair will be stored ...
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What if the attacker tamper the IV used in the block cipher CBC mode?

I am a newbie to block cipher and when learning the CBC mode, I start to understand that an IV is being used in this mode and also will be transferred to the message receiver. So here is my question,...
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TLS key exchange and certificate subject public key clarification

This question is similar to this one, so let me elaborate what I'm struggling with. I want to get the length/strength of the key used by the server during the key exchange and authentication, i.e. ...
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1 vote
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Openssl using the cipher parameter result in handhsake failure

When i use Openssl to connect to facebook.com I see 'ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256' ciphersuite used. openssl s_client -connect www.facebook.com:443 SSL handshake has read 3280 bytes and written 373 ...
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Can someone explain the significance of Certificate Signature algorithm in the selection of Cipher suite in a TLS communication? [duplicate]

Can someone explain the significance of Certificate Signature algorithm in the selection of Cipher suite in a TLS communication?
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3DES supported in application although disabled in Windows

Can users actually use the 3DES cipher to connect to a Tomcat web server, if the 3DES cipher has been disabled via registry keys in Windows: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\...
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Help me to identify what type of string it is? [duplicate]

70373f65f945e5184dcb42793cbe2cddb34248ef172b7ddb5e27467fd8d76314ea8bdeb19226687ac0ca01e646dbe8fdb4dfb2d6816f54b9b500639ac6c3bf056fbd4c45a246bbe66e6fd0ce3730801716b12fff942207933e1bb6386806d476ade6f5b1 ...
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How do I get the list of cipher suites supported in a specific TLS version?

Is there any cipher suites supported in one TLS version and not supported in the other? If yes, then is there any documentation that talks about the cipher suites supported in each TLS or SSL versions?...
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Deciphering ciphertext with an unknown key and algorithm [closed]

How can I get started on understanding how to decipher this ciphertext when I don't know the algorithm or key used? TDcbY xqCa NeAA OsWMirK FNFOm bYRUYAkxl,  tqwl  axZU  XTaLrBSFv OI G vWjBZyqhz.  ...
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Is there any CBC based ciphersuite which are secure for known attacks like LUCKY13?

If you select the modern profile in https://mozilla.github.io/server-side-tls/ssl-config-generator/ , you can see it recommends to enable following four cipher suites also. ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA384 ...
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aes-128 refers to the block size, key or both

What does the number used in cipher suites next to the symmetric encryption algorithm reefers to? Does it mean each block is divided into 128 bit blocks, the key size or both ?
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How do I know which cipher suites can be disabled?

I have just performed a test on my personal webiste via SSLlabs.com and I'm apparently supporting some weaker ciphers. I've managed to improve several settings (like CAA), but I'm getting stuck at the ...
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3 votes
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How to filter ciphers based on ssl certificate?

I have many ssl certificates. On one of the certificates I run the command openssl x509 -in cert.pem -text -noout it shows: Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256 Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey ...
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2 votes
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Losing the Initialization Vector in Cipher Block Chaining

I have written a message and encrypted it using cipher block chaining. What will happen if the receiver loses the Initialization Vector, or doesn't receive at all?
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5 votes
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Do ciphers and encoding schemes make passwords more secure?

I recently came across a tech professional advising a user to take some plaintext of their choice, run it through one of these ciphers, convert it to Base64, and then use the result as their master ...
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What's the difference between `aes-128-cbf` and `aes-128-gcm`?

We often hear of AES-128-CBF and AES-128-GCM, but what's the difference between them?
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What's the meaning of cipher's `IV Length`?

What's the meaning of IV length? there provide several stream ciphers, what's the meaning of IV Length? Name Key Size IV Length aes-128-ctr 16 16 aes-192-ctr 24 ...
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For a cipher school challenge I need help breaking this cipher [closed]

[CIPHERTEXTSTARTS]HI wsndtonInehbihs if at t iyoncniegtrf .e noionbpni y,iu.w ahoui hs hroyh!euecsy m.ot ew hrc hb;ntsresnmdma ipMsat ln ts , ryiceg ensh c n byr t k t oe de uhw stiytoer s ...
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