Questions tagged [hmac]

a method for constructing a message authentication code based on a cryptographic hash function.

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Does TLS provide data integrity? [duplicate]

I've looked around on this site and I've not seen a clear answer on this question. From what I've read TLS does not provide data integrity unless specific ciphers are used which use HMAC'ing as part ...
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Is md5(data + key) secure if a proper hmac function isn't available?

I need to generate a MAC signature for data on a website, but it's in a HTML templating system where there's only a few functions available. The only hashing function available is md5. Ideally, I'd ...
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HMAC with random application Id and secret with DPAPI

We have open endpoints because there is a flow where access token is still not presented. Because of that, I've implemented HMAC + DPAPI (using Azure Blob Storage) to store the keys, without involving ...
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Authentication Cookie Security Features

I am completely stuck and I need to make sure that I am correct. Any help is greatly appreciated. Based on the cookie, I need to answer these questions: Select which security features does the cookie ...
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204 views

Which one to use AES : GCM vs CBC

I am planning to encrypt database fields using AES encryption. Now, this encrypted data will not transfer over the internet and will reside in our own datacenter only. From what I read, GCM mode ...
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Terminology question - authentication through encryption

I came across a number of somewhat similar solutions, which are based on the knowledge factor related to a symmetric key in particular: If a party was able to generate correct message authentication ...
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Why HMAC/Signed API requests are not prevalent compared to API keys or JWT based requests

While all/majority of AWS APIs requests are signed with HMAC, it is not as prevalent for other APIs in general. Most likely, the reason is because of the gotchas involved when client has to make the ...
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What is the need of HMAC in Diffie-Hellman? [duplicate]

When Alice and Bob both have the same shared secret to encrypt their data (Diffie-Hellman) and Alice encrypts her data with this key and Bob can decrypt it with the same key, then Bob knows that the ...
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cracking HMAC-SHA1 when the password and seed are inverted

I happen to have a few hashes generated with code that did this (it has been changed to use a more "standard" bcrypt call): $ python3 >>> import hmac >>> hmac.new(b'The ...
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Is it safe to use HMAC to create an API key?

I am planning to create an API key using the user's password as message and a random number assigned to that user in my database as key (or vice-versa). I will then store the hash of that API key in ...
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Signing event-stream responses

I am working on an application where the general approach is signing most response payloads with HMAC, but there are a couple of endpoints that return text/event-stream in the response. What is the ...
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111 views

Is HMAC-SHA256 more secure to hide information than SHA256?

I need to save user email on a public database but I don't want to do it in plaintext, so I need to hash it. If somebody wants to verify if some email exists in the public database, he or she can ...
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How authenticate a login with javascript

I want to authenticate a user using a username and password in a web app running javascript interfacing to a non node js or php server. In a normal desktop app I could use bcrypt or an hmac or ??. ...
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45 views

Is HMAC really a benefit for AES-CBC?

I think I quite well understand the theoretical benefit of adding the HMAC (authenticity/integrity on top of confidentiality), but I am looking at this from a key management point-of-view. Premise: ...
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1answer
88 views

How does Algolia's virtual API keys work?

Algolia allows you to generate virtual/secured API keys from another parent API key but without a call to their servers. A virtual key thus generated on the server side with a defined "scope" (like ...
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What advantage does HMAC provide in generating short hashes comparing to regular hash function?

This question is specific to the Apple/Google Contact Tracing framework. See https://www.blog.google/documents/56/Contact_Tracing_-_Cryptography_Specification.pdf for the cryptography spec. In this ...
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328 views

How to use Yubikey 5 NFC for online accounts, Linux login, and KeePassXC?

I just got my Yubikey 5 NFC, and would like to use it for Linux desktop login Linux KeePassXC (which only supports hmac-sha1 challenge-response) online accounts When reading about U2F it seams to be ...
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63 views

Can I use PBKDF2 derivation function to generate a MAC in PKCS12 file?

It seems that the default password based key derivation function that is used by PKCS12 to generate a MAC is this one. It is unique to the standard and probably not used anywhere else. Is it possible ...
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630 views

How do backup codes work in TOTP, like Google Authenticator?

My understanding is that in TOTPs are like HMAC where code is derived from time. However, I am struggling to understand the concept of Backup Codes in Google Authenticator, and how are they ...
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137 views

Are short messages hashed with a HMAC insecure?

Imagine I were to provide a person with a single letter "A" and the HMAC-SHA256 hash of this message, keyed with my secret key. Would this person be able to derive any information about my secret key?...
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69 views

Is it secure to use HMAC to pass a string to be verified?

I am working on a Django project and trying to create a REST API to verify email without using any database. My present server connection is HTTP and not HTTPS. So someone using the API end point ...
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Does transmitting short, predictable plaintext along with the HMAC signature of that text present a security risk

In order to allow clients to verify responses originating from our server, we are generating an HMAC signature of the body and a timestamp, and attaching it as a header. The timestamp is also attached ...
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I am signing (HMAC) outgoing webhooks to allow users to verify their source, should I also sign outgoing responses?

To allow api users to verify the authenticity of outgoing webhooks, I am using a similar model to slack: Concatenate timestamp and body, HMAC with pre-shared key, add timestamp and HMAC digest to ...
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Is this symmetric key system secure?

I am creating a secure network data transfer system, and would like to know if there are any obvious flaws in this scheme. Secrets The secret is a password that is known to both clients. This ...
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concatenation vs multiple rounds of HMAC

I was studying the AWS request signature process and found that they derive the signing key from multiple sources (one and two related questions). Specifically this: kSecret = Your AWS Secret Access ...
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API protection - JWT vs HMAC signing vs OAuth

Lets say you are designing a new API. The consumer of your API is a mobile app that periodically sends requests in the background, but you expect other consumers as well, such as web apps or servers. ...
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374 views

HMAC and integrity

I'm studying network security and I found this question in my slide, but don't have an answer. Discuss the use of keyed HMACs for guaranteeing the integrity of a file being transmitted over the ...
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JWT: Choosing between HMAC and RSA

It is my understanding that HMAC is a symmetric signing algorithm (single secret key) whereas RSA is an asymmetric signing algorithm (private/public key pair). I am trying to choose between these 2 ...
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107 views

How should we apply the salt to the password? [duplicate]

According to Wikipedia: A rainbow table is ineffective against one-way hashes that include large salts. For example, consider a password hash that is generated using the following function (where "|...
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118 views

Can the username be used in HMAC during client-side hashing?

I am very new to authentication and cybersecurity in general, so I apologize if I have anything completely wrong. My goal is to have the client side hash passwords before sending them to server side ...
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232 views

Detect duplicates without exposing underlying data

We have a scenario where we need to prevent two users from using the same identifier. The identifier is sensitive (e.g. a social security number), so we do not want to store it in our DB. We just want ...
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83 views

Is HMAC preferable to Digital signature

I'm new to infosec. I'm studying about various encryption algorithms. Based on what I've found so far, I think HMAC and Digital signature are almost the same except whether the key is symmetric or ...
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89 views

Can I securely share an HMAC key over a TLS connection?

In a game client/server that I'm developing, I want to allow a user to authenticate over TLS (via a REST endpoint on an HTTPS server) before dropping to an unencrypted low-latency UDP protocol. To ...
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235 views

How to protect HMAC key embedded in code from someone who would copy entire source?

I and a friend are developing a web game. The front-end to back-end communication will be carried out by the means of an API. We realized that someone could then easily hook up to our API and make a ...
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811 views

How secure is using MD5 for signature

Generally speaking, MD5 is considered as broken for secure usage these days, but I came across a signature design using MD5 many times recently in my company. The detail shows as following: T = text, ...
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147 views

Where does last 4 bytes of hmac go in wpa2 mic?

The wpa2 mic is a 16 bytes array which is built by Hmac(sha1) ,But the Hmac(sha1) returns 20 bytes array. So where does that 4 bytes go?
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HMAC and key size

I generated a keyed hash using HMAC-MD5 and HMAC-SHA256 for an arbitrary file with various keys of different lengths. Do we have to use a key with a fixed size in HMAC? If so, what is the key size? ...
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153 views

hmac based request signature for verification

say i want an application to integrate my services & need some way of verifying requests from that application, i have an integration key, and a shared secret, i can generate a generate a ...
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455 views

Calculating HMAC

I've been trying to learn how HMAC is calculated but seem to be missing something. According to this wiki page, calling HMAC-SHA1 on an empty key and message should result in a value of ...
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371 views

Is this vault-less password manager/generator design safe?

Counter The counter is appended to the site name and incremented if you need to get a new password for a site or if the generated password is insecure because it randomly matches something like "...
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Is it reasonable to store HMAC secret key in memory only?

I'm building a web application using Spring Boot for the backend and Angular for the frontend and planning on using JWTs signed with HMAC-SHA256 for authentication/authorization. I've been thinking ...
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How secure is the Ciphersweet library for searchable encryption, and why is a duplicate entry leak not a problem?

I'm currently managing a code base in which we've got a mysql database with all records encrypted using the php-encryption library. This works well for our current setup. We now got a new business ...
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198 views

Is AES+hash rather than HMAC problematic?

I will now ask a strange question, but bear with me. I can't share the entire usecase, but the point is to allow the holder of a secret key to create "strings" (used in other systems). The strings ...
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59 views

Proof of information having been created before it is released

I have been thinking about the following use-case: some institution wants to organize bets about an outcome that is of its own choosing. The timeline is as follows: The organization chooses the ...
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219 views

Is AES + MAC more secure than encrypting plaintext along with its hash

Suppose I want to encrypt some plaintext and I can only use an unauthenticated AES mode like CBC. One way of adding authentication is encrypt-then-MAC, where the two different keys for AES and MAC ...
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585 views

KeePassXC & Yubikey HMAC-SHA-1 vs 40+ Character Password

Looking at the implementation of the Yubikey 4 HMAC-SHA1 mode for KeePassXC, I want to know: Isn't the HMAC-SHA1 challenge response less secure than a 40+ character password? From what I know, the ...
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1k views

when should i use HMAC-based JWT?

I read a number of blog posts and found that it is tough to keep the secret-key a secret and if using a symmetric algorithm for JWT creation, the generator has the power to create as well as validate ...
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499 views

Implementation of PMKID computing function

I am trying to implement a function, let's say in Python to compute Pairwise Master Key Identifier (PMKID) after reading the previously discovered bug in WPA2. Googling gave me this logical statement: ...
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157 views

Help to review 2FA algorithm

First of all, I know, don't reinvent the wheel... But there's a good reason for this. So I have been implementing a generic 2 factor authentication code generation/validation algorithm in order to re-...
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Is an HMAC hash of plaintext data secure enough to use as a lookup index for encrypted data

I'm working on an app that will download files from external servers over https and store them on disk in a relatively secure way. Specifically, using a cryptographically unique IV, an AES256 cipher ...

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