Questions tagged [memory]

Computer memory refers to a physical device that is used to store sequences of instructions (programs) or data (program state information) on a temporary or permanent basis for use in a computer.

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How does stack allocation work in this program? [closed]

I'm trying to write a blogpost on this challenge (it's pretty basic, it should teach you about buffer overflows and ret2libc attacks). The source code is the following: #include <stdlib.h> #...
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What does Snowden mean by “majority of vulnerabilities … are introduced, for technical reasons …, at the exact time the code is written”?

In a recent Substack article ("The Insecurity Industry", 2021-07-26) Edward Snowden writes: The vast majority of vulnerabilities that are later discovered and exploited by the Insecurity ...
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Create memory image of infected machine without risk

I am pretty new in the security world and I am writing a procedure on how to create a memory image of an infected machine for forensics. The problem is that the machine does not have the tools for ...
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Process Injection and Process Isolation by OS

If the OS is responsible for ensuring that one process cannot access another process memory space, and the point of process isolation is to keep processes separate from one another, then how can a ...
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Memory Forensics on exited process

I am new to memory forensics. When a process in Windows is ended are all artifacts for the process in memory gone? I ask because my EDR solution gives me the local process ID of a process I am ...
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How useful are memory forensic tools for detecting active attacks (considering current devices)

Are memory forensic tools useful for attack detection? Usually they are applied after an attack has happened. You could always constantly scan a machine but this requires lots of resources and ...
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Disable memory scrambling [closed]

Is it possible to disable memory scrambling for RAM? Can you change what kind of algorithm is used? Can you check from inside the OS which is using the memory if/what scrambling is in use? Do devices ...
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How do memory resident viruses work?

Two part question: 1-How do memory resident viruses stay in memory after the program which loaded them is finalized? If all memory is automatically deallocated by the OS once a program is finished, ...
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How to donate a computer without jeopardizing personal information?

I have an old computer that is no longer working and I want to donate it or perhaps throw it in the trash. However, I don't want people to potentially get my banking account data, usernames/passwords ...
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Since GPUs have gigabytes of memory, does Argon2id need to use gigabytes of memory as well in order to effectively thwart GPU cracking?

The common advice of benchmarking a password hashing algorithm and choosing the slowest acceptable cost factor doesn't work for algorithms with more than one parameter: adding a lot of iterations at ...
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Can XIP (execute in place) be used for kernel protection?

Starting with kernel 5.13 RiscV will get XIP where parts of the kernel run from non volatile memory like flash. In theory you could make parts of the kernel really read only either from the hardware ...
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Is uninitialized memory considered sensitive?

Consider a program that can allocate and read uninitialized memory regions, e.g. for performance reasons. Should said program assume that those regions may contain sensitive information, or is it the ...
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Is this malloc wrapper safe?

I am trying to stop integer overflow vulnerabilities by creating a simple wrapper around malloc(3) and related functions. The idea is that it returns a NULL pointer if the amount of required memory ...
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Are the sticks of RAM in my desktop computer volatile? Is it safe to sell them?

I have two sticks of RAM in my computer that I would like to sell or donate. From what I understand some RAM is volatile, losing all its contents when power is gone for a few minutes, and some is non-...
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Question on stack overflow

I am preparing for an exam in Computer Security and doing a past-exam without soluions, so I wanted to check if my reasoning holds on a question about stack overflow. Below is the C code in question. ...
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Finding NonPagedPool Start and End Address using volatility

I am exploiting bluekeep vulnerability in windows server 2008 R2 using metasploit framework. When I run the exploit windows/rdp/cve_2019_0708_bluekeep_rce, it ends in BSOD on server and then server ...
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The hidden meaning of the source code of the malware?

I'm studying the source code of malware developed in c++ and I have two questions in the source code below This is probably code that loads malicious dlls into memory. typedef BOOL (WINAPI *...
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Assigning memory address of shellcode to buffer (for buffer overflow input)

I am attempting to exploit HEVD kernel driver buffer overflow challenge: https://github.com/hacksysteam/HackSysExtremeVulnerableDriver However when running the below code my windows 7 machine doesn't ...
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Do modern GPUs have memory protection?

What mechanisms (if any) modern GPUs implement to prevent different processes from accessing each other's memory (on graphics card)?
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(When) Is it a security concern if BIOS/UEFI uses/reserves much RAM?

BIOS, UEFI and hardware's firmware ROMs are not very comforting sources for concern. On a system that I administer, a large amount of main system memory (9 of 512GB) is unavailable. Next to the ...
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Authenticate Windows/Linux process against hardware security module

I have a hardware security module connected to a host computer (Windows/Linux). The HSM contains symmetric keys used to encrypt/decrypt data (i.e. files and real-time communications); the keys are ...
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“Memory-Hard” vs. “Memory-Bound” Functions?

One of the approaches in order to prevent Sybil or DoS attacks is CPU-bound PoW. However, because of the influence of Moore’s law, the memory-based approaches are suggested. As actually there are two ...
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Memory address problem in GNU Debugger

I'm new to gbd. I've wrote a simple program which will print hello world 10 times(I've listed the program in the screenshot). Then I've displayed the assembly language and set the break point to main ...
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In-memory pepper

As far as I understand, a problem with the idea of a pepper is that, if it's stored as part of your code, then the hacker can read it if they can access your code. So I was wondering, would it not be ...
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Emergency method to erase all data off a machine within seconds

Imagine you are carrying highly sensitive information with you, maybe on a mission in a war zone. You get in an ambush and quickly need to erase all the files before they fall in the wrong hands. This ...
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Format string exploit length

I'm new to Software security and I'm studying it now at the university. I had some doubts about the Format String exploit, in particular how to count the length (in number of bytes) of a format string ...
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Process hollowing and the Import Address Table

I have been learning and implementing Process Hollowing attacks, and even after I got the thing work, I have some questions. Why aren't we building the IAT when we load our injected PE? All we do is ...
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How to safely handle non public data in memory

Alice needs to get non public information from Bob, validate it (let's say check that birth day is between 1900 and now) and forward it to Charlie. There's an end to end encryption between Alice and ...
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Is it trivial to protect from double free just by LD_PRELOADing a custom malloc/calloc and free?

Can't one just implement a malloc/calloc wrapper that adds the returned pointer address to a global hash table prior to returning, and then a free wrapper that checks for the presence of the pointer ...
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How to build Linux Volatility Profiles With the Compiled Kernel

I'm familiar with creating Linux memory profiles as stated here. However, this is assuming that I have access to the live system which often times is not the case. I heard there is a way to build the ...
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How to get a Windows 10 complete memory dump on demand?

I was wondering what to do if by any chance I got infected with a Ransomware that could trick my AV suite, and my conclusion is that a complete memory dump would be the best option, as probably the ...
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How to use “jmp” in ROP

I'm trying to put together a ROP chain. I'm looking for a gadget to do the following: mov rdi, rdx ; mov rbp, rsp ; ret; But instead, I have a gadget like this : mov rdi, rdx ; mov rbp, rsp ; ...
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Kernel ROP crashes running OS

I was experimenting to see if I can make an ROP chain within the kernel. In the kernel debugging mode, I can make the first jump to an arbitrary gadget address without any problem. But the problem ...
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“Trusted memory” What does it mean?

It is often cited "to load from untrusted memory to a trusted system memory" when describing the secure boot process. I wonder, when can we consider a memory as "trusted"?
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Bypassing Secure Boot in System on Chip

To bypass a secure boot for System on Chip (SoC), some attacks target the phase of copying the bootloader from where it is stored to the main memory. Instead, a malicious code will be copied to the ...
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Tamper Protected VS. Tamper Proof for write-protected memories

I read in the answer here by Marcus that ROM is Tamper-proof. What is the difference between tamper-proof, tamper protected and tamper-resistant? Now, there are some re-writable memory (eg. eNVM) ...
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Find Buffer Overflows at a target you want to gain access

I want to pass my OSCP exam and I am learning with the material I got. I watched the videos and read the pdf but I have a question about buffer overflows. In the example in the videos, the guy has ...
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Protect sensitive data in memory

Is there a way to protect sensitive data which is in RAM? Our setup is a microcontroller with no hardware support for security. When there is a need to encrypt data, then the secret key exists in RAM. ...
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Read-only vs. Write-protected

From an information security aspect, is there a difference between saying "read-only" or "write-protected" storage/memory? Is there a chance that a read-only memory would not be write-protected at ...
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In what ways can the contents of RAM be (inadvertently) written to disk?

I'm working on improving the security of my own system by mitigating the chance sensitive information, (e.g. encryption keys) stored in RAM, are inadvertently written to disk. As of now I know of ...
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Live Memory Analysis

I'm a developer working on a POC for an internal web app (Python\SQL) which will handle sensitive employee information within our company. In going over the application with our security department to ...
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What are the security implications of invalid free()?

CVE-2009-5030 OpenJPEG: Heap memory corruption leading to invalid free The tcd_free_encode function in tcd.c in OpenJPEG 1.3 through 1.5 allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service (...
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Volatility: Issue with analyzing Windows 10 and Server 2016 systems

I have been trying to use Volatility 2.6 to analyze memory dumps generated by DumpIt. I am experiencing an issue analyzing the memory dumps (all 4 GB in size) of two Windows 10 64 bit boxes (build ...
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Access to foreign memory address

Modern operating systems like Windows 10 isolate memory addresses for processes so how is it possible that Cheat Engine can get these addressed and change their values? At this forum it has already ...
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Security in memory and between local windows processes over localhost

I have a windows application that runs in 2 processes and communicates over localhost network port. This application can hold secrets, such as a web cookie. I'm trying to think through the security ...
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Why does Windows allow non-parent processes to read/write the memory of a process?

I recently learned that in Windows a process is generally allowed to alter the the memory of another process as long as it is running under the same user. I tried running the following code with ...
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Find out if a process is legitimately allowed to use “shared memory segments”

rkhunter is checking for processes using shared memory segments and warns with output like: Warning: The following suspicious (large) shared memory segments have been found: Process: /usr/bin/python3....
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Zeroization of sensitive data in Functional Programming Languages

Concerning the very familiar (and sensible) security practice of Zeroizing sensitive data from memory after you're finished with it, such as Cryptographic keys, passwords, etc, I was pondering how you ...
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Is a Buffer Overflow / NOP Slide possible for memory addresses that contain null bytes?

I have been reading up on Buffer Overflows and NOP Sleds. I tried to use the exploit on an example target and I got stuck because I needed to inject a null byte in the return address for my BP so that ...
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What is the method police use to recover deleted data from phone memory?

I am writing a story that involves a cellphone being recovered at a crime scene. The police go through it and find all the non-deleted files and continue until a they do something to obtain the data ...

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