Questions tagged [obfuscation]

Obfuscation refers to hiding the intended meaning of communication.

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Industry secure file format like .OFX Open Financial Exchange File [closed]

The .OFX Open Financial Exchange File is a file format created for financial data exchanges between financial institutions. I was wondering if in the IT security realm, such a file format exists. My ...
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51 views

Creating a fully undetectable Payload [closed]

I've been looking into ethical hacking recently and I've been really struggling to create a truly fully undetectable payload that evades AV (Windows Defender I'm fine at avoiding.) I've tried various ...
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How to deobfuscate malicious PHP code [duplicate]

This is my first malware analyis, so apologies for my probably noob-like question. I'm having a look at a website running an outdated version of Wordpress which was hacked. The Website runs on a ...
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Is there any existing obfuscation scheme that makes cipher text indistinguishable from plain text? [migrated]

Suppose a totalitarian government (in the name of anti-terrorism / protection of intellectual property): has outlawed encryption itself - encryption is only approved for cases where the state has ...
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1answer
86 views

Banking App With Sensitive Info In Plain Text

I have a car loan and wanted to make a payment through their website. To enroll for online payments, it asks for the last 4 numbers of my social security number, birth date and account number, but ...
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1answer
98 views

Help with decoding this? Base64 attack [closed]

I'm trying to decode this attack. I know it's attempting to send some kind of malicious command to the web server but I can't figure out how to decode it. It's like encoded more than once or something....
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56 views

Packaging Python code for github: should I obfuscate author email address from the `setup.py`?

The standard file with packaging instructions (setup.py with setuptools) for Python contains an author_email field. Such a package can then be published to PyPI, but the code is also available ...
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58 views

Securely unpack malware

I'm trying to find a way to securely unpack Windows Malware packed with UPX, I need to unpack a lot for analysis so automating the process as much as possible is beneficial. I've found a few methods ...
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1answer
107 views

Should I complie software after making all the variable and function names “1-2 character”? [duplicate]

In JavaScript, it seems common for the official release of the code to use only single-character variable and function names (of course, after converting the original code which uses clearer names) in ...
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1answer
789 views

How can I obfuscate a 64-bit executable Windows file? [closed]

Hyperion works OK when scrambling/obfuscating win32 files, but I am trying a program that seems to be a Win64 executable, and it fails: C:\Hyperion>hyperion.exe -v mimikatz.exe output.exe -------...
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5answers
12k views

Does code obfuscation give any measurable security benefit?

I've always firmly held the belief that obfuscation is essentially useless. Obfuscated code is not impossible to read, only harder to read. I had the belief that a sufficiently skilled attacker would ...
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What are good examples of “Dynamic opaque predicates”?

I am studying the concept of software obfuscation and come across this interesting scheme, dynamic opaque predicate: Basically it either goes two false branches, or two true branches, and ...
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236 views

How can Runtime-Crypters stay FUD

A Runtime Crypter always works with the same principle: It decrypts its payload, starts up a process in suspended state, inserts the payload and resumes the suspended process under false flag. All ...
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3answers
265 views

Prevent finding key in C++ application binary

I need to store a key (symmetric-key cryptography) within my C++ application binary (based on OpenCV) so that the key as unidentifiable as possible. Can someone help me choose the key so that is ...
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1answer
100 views

Obfuscating “sensitive” strings in mobile client

We have a client that runs some native (C++) code on both Android and iOS, to mitigate MITM attacks we use certificate pinning. This means that the binary includes some strings (const char * const ...
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3answers
161 views

Are there types of malware that are so time-intensive to detect that AV vendors simply choose to not detect them? [closed]

I've been reading a lot about how AVs use different heuristic methods to detect obfuscated malware and it seems like some of these methods are very time/processor intensive. For example, to detect ...
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3answers
134 views

Is code obfuscation common in FOSS?

I am a learner of FOSS licensing, security and privacy. I ask this question because one of the arguments persuading users to use or switch to FOSS is the fact that since the code is open, an expert ...
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1answer
268 views

Is security by obscurity / obfuscation a valid option, or do the crawlers have JavaScript enabled?

I'm creating a new website, so I am thinking about how to protect my email address and phone number against crawlers, I actually mean email harvesters (most of which I suppose don't have JavaScript ...
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1answer
118 views

What does the attached php malware do? [duplicate]

Found this on a WordPress server under the filename wp-includes/class-wp-image-editor-fd.php when WordFence picked it up as being an unexpected file. Link to source is here: https://pastebin.com/...
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1answer
113 views

Filtering Obfuscated Spam Emails In Exchange

So the past few weeks we have been trying to cut back on the amount of spam reaching our users in our organization. We have been successful in implementing hard filtering rules like if an email ...
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1answer
128 views

What notable examples of metamorphic engines are there? [closed]

I am doing a research project on metamorphic malware and would like to have access to a metamorphic engine I could demo. Are there any good open-source (or easily obtainable) metamorphic engines I ...
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83 views

Junk code insertion in Smali

I was trying to obfuscate android by adding junk code in Smali. Understood that by adding nop/goto instruction to it works well. However when I tried to add (const/4 v0, 0x4) my app crash after ...
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3answers
189 views

What string encoding options are there besides xor? [closed]

When attempting to obfuscate strings in a modern program, xor is probably the most common option. By this I mean running each char of a string through a function which xors the char with some given ...
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2answers
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Could always-listening mobile apps secretly spy on conversations?

Various apps and services available on modern smartphones constantly listen with the mic (e.g. Siri or Google Assistant listening for wake word, "Now Playing" feature on Pixel phones). To settle user ...
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2answers
246 views

Why are there no GPU Obfuscators? [closed]

Rationale: I need to figure out ways to protect Intellectual Property contained in NVIDIA CUDA/GPU code. That said, I'm surprised that there are literally zero GPU code obfuscators. On stack ...
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1answer
545 views

Key Encryption / Obfuscation

I got a GUI Program, which loads the Logic from a webserver if the entered License Key is valid. The actual connection string I hexed and xor'd with a secret key. (which is unfortunately static) The ...
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1answer
62 views

How can I make sure that my Python code cannot be accessed by the user of my web app?

I have a Python Program whose code I would like to protect. For sake of example, let's say I coded a novel function called "add" which does the following: def add(n1, n2): return n1 + n2 I'd ...
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1answer
302 views

Is this strange PHP file that I found on my server malicious? [duplicate]

I found a PHP file that I don't know where it came from on my server: <?php $ojcsoo = '_-bHft\'dik1x6cn9leapm0y4s7vg5*r8ou#2';$zjdtjcd = Array();$zjdtjcd[] = $ojcsoo[3].$ojcsoo[29];$zjdtjcd[] = $...
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1answer
354 views

C++ binary obfuscation: how to get around license checks being a simple if/then branches?

I'm looking into binary obfuscation for an exectuable binary written in C++. I realize preventing cracks is impossible, but making it slightly harder would be nice. No matter how complex the actual ...
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1answer
153 views

Are auto-type features of password managers actually effective against keyloggers?

Of course if you think of a "keylogger" as a program that can only read keystrokes, then copy-pasting on the clipboard is going to be enough. But we know that keyloggers are not really only "logging ...
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331 views

How to obfuscate C++ code with movfuscator?

I want to obfuscate a C++ application using movfuscator, but movfuscator currently uses C as the source language and not C++. I tried to do the followings (as they recommended, but with no success): ...
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4answers
1k views

Does appending randomness to a token before encrypting it, make it more secure?

Scenario: User requests page on my site Server builds up token using various values, encrypts it (via an industry-standard algorithm, nothing homegrown) using a key only the server knows, and returns ...
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2answers
306 views

How to obfuscate a assemblies binary compiled with .NET framework?

How to obfuscate a binary compile with .NET framework? Tools such as Ebowla and Pecloak.py will encrypt it but the program won't run. Even UPX can't pack it. Wondering are there any ways to obfuscate ...
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1answer
726 views

Obfuscated PHP code found on Wordpress site - has it been compromised? [duplicate]

Firstly - I expect the answer to be yes. But I never dealt with something like this so I would like some advice. A client has recently complained that their website went down. So I started ...
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1answer
567 views

How to obfuscate SSH tunnel Mac?

I am looking to test a DPI (deep packet inspector). I currently have it set up to block SSH connections (which it does successfully). I have learned that DPI can be bypassed by obfuscating/encrypting ...
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2answers
627 views

How to make a well-known malicious programs undetectable by anti-virus solutions? [closed]

I want to make well-known malicious programs, like Mimikatz and Incognito, undetectable by anti-virus solutions. I have already tried various approaches myself, like packing the binary with UPX or ...
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2answers
853 views

Extract URL from obfuscate javascript

I have an obfuscated script. I was asked to de-obfuscate the code and extract the URL from the script. However, I used multiple de-obfuscation tools such as https://www.javascriptdeobfuscator.com/ ...
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1answer
408 views

Extract urls from obfuscated android malware

Working on android malwares, i have faced many android malwares that typically contain urls which are bank phishing page. This type of malwares are growing in number so an automated detection system ...
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1answer
1k views

Trying to understand what this PHP malware does [closed]

My server has been hacked recently and the hacker has uploaded multiple malicious source code to the web server. I have already de-obfuscate the code, but I still don't understand what it does. It ...
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34 views

Security of password to database in 2-layer SW model

I'm struggling with kinda old application which is written for Windows and has a 2-layer approach, meaning that the client SW is connecting to backend database directly. This of course mean that the ...
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1answer
772 views

Android anti-tampering and SSL pinning bypass solid implementation [duplicate]

Is there any advance solution for Android application anti-tampering and bulletproof obfuscation implementation? I have been already using following protections in my application: Obsufcation using ...
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1answer
87 views

Visual Studio anonymity

Recently me and me colleague was wondering about obfuscating / removing project info. If application is reverse engineered than what kind of information the engineer sees? Can he see the email of the ...
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1answer
848 views

Modify Win OS banner to avoid OS detection

I would like to modify Win OS banner to defeat OS detection from scanning tools like Nmap for example. Although, I know that Nmap does not take into account just the banner to do OS detection.
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1answer
309 views

Phishing email with encoded url params

I received a phishing email with the following format: hxxp://<%legitimateSite%>/~!@%23$%25%5e&()_+~!@%23$%25%5e&()+~!@%23$%25%5e&*()+~!@%23$%25%5e&()_+~!@%23$%25%5e&()+~!@%...
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1answer
581 views

How to Change a Culture of “Security Through Obscurity”

I have worked for a number of organizations in the past that utilize practices that are justified by what I would describe as "Security through Obscurity" including the following: Weak/Vulnerable two ...
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1answer
427 views

About the IEEE P1735 standard

I read this article from The hacker news (article). I understand the figure showing how P1735 works but I'm wondering, when you ship your IP (Intellectual Property) to a client, the code needs to be ...
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1answer
640 views

Generating request-specific token for an API

We have an API openly accessible through a data visualization on a website and an app. We'd like to make the life of potential data scrapers a bit more difficult. First thing we did was to add some ...
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8answers
7k views

Should firmware images for IoT be encrypted for security reasons?

When working with Internet of Things devices, is it recommend to obfuscate or encrypt firmware images pushed to clients? This to make reverse engineering harder. (They should be signed of course)
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3answers
12k views

Strange code running at startup

A piece of code was running on my Windows machine at startup. I would like to know exactly what this code is doing; it seems to refer to something like crackbook? @echo off if %...
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2answers
147 views

Is there a point to obfuscating form field values?

Our company provides omnichannel (web, mobile, etc.) solutions for the banking industry. One of our customers is pushing for obfuscating or encrypting the contents of the form fields (client-side, on ...