Questions tagged [terminology]

For questions about names of attacks, vulnerabilities, concepts, etc.

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RBAC0 RBAC1 RBAC2 RBAC3 — What do they mean?

I am familiar with the concept of role-based access control but have heard the terms RBAC0 etc. being thrown around. What do these really mean? I found this quote on a NIST website: In 1996, Sandhu,...
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0answers
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Difference between IAG and IDM

What is the difference between Identity Management products (such as Forefront/MIM, PicketLink, OpenIDM) and Identity Access Governance tools (such as Sailpoint,Savyint, CyberArk)? Apologies for ...
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1answer
80 views

What is the difference between data owner, data custodian and system owner?

I just started studying up for the CISSP and am having trouble understanding few concepts: Data owner Data custodian System owner Somewhere I read: The data owner (information owner) is usually a ...
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1answer
61 views

SNMP - need help with terminology

In many resources, I see that community strings are also called default passwords. But in the Server Manager, I see "Community name" and it makes more sense. So why people often use the phrase "...
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5answers
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What exactly is CTF and how can I as programmer prepare for a CTF with beginner-friendly people?

I reached out to an old friend of mine who was a terrific programmer back in my school days and he invited me to attend one of the CTF events with his university group. This group seems very beginner ...
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1answer
43 views

The use of “over” in cryptography (as in “a hash over the key”)

This is the ultimate noob question. When reading discussions of cryptography, I often come across phrases like these: ...calculates a hash over the primary key... ...a key derivation function ...
5
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1answer
133 views

What is the proper terminology and base CVSS score for the following cache related behaviour?

An interface (website/application) that requires authentication should have a proper HTTP caching mechanism. When it doesn't, it allows an attacker to browse back after logout or read the cache in ...
164
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4answers
34k views

What does it mean to “burn a zero-day”?

I noticed a comment on this answer where another user said ...but it requires risking burning a 0day, which people are not always all that willing to do. I did an Internet Search for the phrase "...
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1answer
57 views

Is there a term for the combination of principal and credential?

In an API that needs to take a principal and a credential as arguments, what is the pair of those two pieces of information commonly called? FFW Apache Shiro seems to call this an AuthenticationToken....
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1answer
47 views

What's the difference between OVAL definitions, objects, and tests?

I'm trying to become more familiar with OVAL tst def and obj references in joval xml definition files. For example, I'll see stuff like: <criterion comment="Foo" test_ref="oval:org.mitre.oval:...
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2answers
225 views

What are client-side exploits

I am learning about cybersecurity and have read about client-side exploits. I know they are vulnerabilities/exploits and they target the client instead of a server. What are some examples of this and ...
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2answers
1k views

What's the difference between an API gateway and XML gateway?

I'm studying for the CCSP exam and am confused on the difference between an "API gateway" and "XML gateway". The training material I have states: API gateways are also an important part of a ...
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72 views

adaptive vs. non-adaptive adversaries; Is there a precise, unique and general definition?

In this Ethereum github page (Link to the page: https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/Sharding-FAQ#what-are-the-security-models-that-we-are-operating-under) there is a very brief definition of the ...
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3answers
130 views

Terminology for reduced brute-force attack?

Many security algorithms today have such a large key length, that there's just no use in trying to brute-force a key. For example to find one AES-256 key you would have to try 2^255 keys on average. ...
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3answers
5k views

What is the difference between a payload and shellcode?

I am new to penetration testing and I would like to know the differences between these two things: Payload (reverse TCP vs. bind shell) Shell vs. Shellcode Any help?
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What is a rootkit?

As a followup to "Tripwire - Is It Security Theater", I'm looking to get a better idea of what a rootkit is. To be more clear: What is a kernel module? What at high-level is the flow for how it's ...
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2answers
5k views

Taxonomy of Ciphers/MACs/Kex available in SSH?

SSH offers a large variety of algorithms for Ciphers, MACs and KexAlgorithms configuration options. Sometimes I need quick and light (my own internal network), and sometimes I want all the ...
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3answers
7k views

What is the meaning of Triage in Cybersec world?

I searched Google about this term, but the definitions that I found was related to the medical world, and nothing related to IT. I think that is some kind of procedure of documenting something maybe? ...
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1answer
403 views

How do I interpret output that produces gpg listing keys?

Correct me where I'm wrong. There are public and private (or secret) keys. A public and a private key make up a keypair. Some keypairs are bound to the other ones. The former are called subkeys, the ...
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2answers
299 views

SIEM and Security Analytics

I've encountered the two terms 'SIEM' and 'Security Analytics' a lot in the past few weeks, unfortunately I still don't understand the difference. According to some research I've done about these ...
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1answer
589 views

What's the difference between “Organization normative framework” and “Application normative framework”?

I'm studying for the CCSP exam and I'm confused with some of the terminologies between Organization normative framework and application normative framework. The training material defines them as: ...
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3answers
102 views

Confusing terminologies: Incident, alert, event, ticket [duplicate]

I am doing research on Security orchestration and automation response (SOAR) and three above terminologies make me very confused. We are currently following the workflow like: some security events ...
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2answers
63 views

Definition of information in ISO 2700x

I've searched through recent versions of ISO 27000, 27001 and 27002 and couldn't find definition of "information". Where can I find it? Is "information" defined anywhere? Or maybe I should look at ...
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4answers
4k views

What is the difference between a backdoor and a rootkit?

I was reading the "What is a rootkit ?" post and I'm confused about the difference between a rootkit and a backdoor. As I understood it, both : Are a piece of code written by the attacker and ...
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2answers
167 views

How are ciphers related to cryptographic algorithms like DES or AES?

It looks like I am having a terminology issue here. In cryptography, we have stream ciphers and block ciphers. I understand their difference. We also have cryptographic algorithms like AES (Rijndael). ...
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1answer
79 views

What is a Security Guideline and how does it stand in relation with Standards, Policies, Procedures?

I'm currently working on the definitions-section of a paper. Therefore I have to define the term "Guideline" and how its relationship to other terms (Standards, Policies, Procedures) looks like. ...
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1answer
90 views

What is the difference between full end-to-end encryption and end-to-end encryption?

What is the difference between full end-to-end encryption and end-to-end encryption? Are there any differences between these two terms?
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1answer
241 views

What is a “security bod”?

This is a term I ran across in a blog post by Troy Hunt (which was linked from an answer on this site): I heard a perfect example of this just the other day when speaking to a security bod in a ...
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4answers
3k views

Where does authenticity fit into the CIA Triad?

Consider a chat application where an attacker is able to send messages in any user's name. This obviously violates the message's authenticity. But what aspect of CIA would be violated? Integrity ...
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1answer
3k views

Is SHA synonymous with SHA1 or SHA0?

There is so little info and so much confusion out there. People often equate SHA2 as being SHA256; so then would SHA be 160 bit, also known as SHA1? Is SHA deprecated, like SHA1? Are they the ...
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1answer
66 views

What's the relation between a Security Framework & Standards, Guidelines, Procedures and Policies?

I'm currently writing a paper about security standards. Therefore several terms have to be defined before I can actually start. The problem is that in every resource the term "Framework" is somehow ...
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0answers
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Vocabulary matters: link between faults and weaknesses

I am trying to make the link between faults and weaknesses (As defined by Common Weaknesses Enumeration, a MITRE project). The word "fault" is generally used in the reliability domain, to designate ...
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2answers
509 views

What is difference between cracking and ethical hacking?

Today I read about ethical hacking and cracking. I read that ethical hacking is legal but cracking is illegal. The confusion came in my mind when I think that both are same. So how can we identify ...
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4answers
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Difference between a security analyst and a security engineer?

Looking out for jobs/internships, I see these two designations used almost interchangeably at times and at other times they mean different things. So as someone who have no experience in security, ...
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3answers
7k views

What does “in-house hash function” mean?

In security news, I faced a new term related to hash functions: it is reported that the "in-house hash function" used in IOTA platform is broken (i.e. Curl-P hash function). You can find the complete ...
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2answers
620 views

What is the etymology of “Salt” in relation to password storage?

Simple question: When talking about appending a random string to a password before hashing in order to defend against dictionary attacks, we call it a salt. Why do we call it a salt?
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5answers
180 views

What does “hacked” actually mean? [duplicate]

In the context of a) information security and b) an operating system such as Windows 10 or OS X, what actually constitutes a "hack"? Most non-technical end-users associate the term "hack" with the ...
3
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3answers
257 views

Difference between white-box testing and secure code review

As far as I know, penetration testing can be divided into black-box, gray-box, and white-box testing. But then what about secure code review? Is it part of white-box testing or is it separate?
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1answer
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What is TTP hunting?

What is "TTP hunting" in terms of network security research? I came across this term, but do not know what this is . Tried to google it, but TTP seem to stand for many different things, but none of ...
3
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1answer
599 views

Is there a name for an anti-virus station / kiosk?

I am not able to define the exact term for a station that is meant to scan whatever media coming from outside a company and that have the following specifications: The station should never be on any ...
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2answers
248 views

Unambiguous terminology for different kinds of malware?

I noticed in the literatures that there are no exact boundaries for numerous information security terms such as malware, virus, etc. Some people say malware in the umbrella under which viruses, worms, ...
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3answers
2k views

What is the difference between misuse and abuse cases in security?

I know that misuse cases are use cases which help identify security requirements as they highlight the user's goal in misusing the system, but what exactly is abuse cases and what is the difference or ...
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1answer
160 views

What does Frank Abagnale mean by “Level 4 security” in his talk at Google?

During his talk at Google, Frank Abagnale mentioned the following: ...we will be doing away with passwords in the next 24 months. Passwords will leave the world, there will be no more passwords. ...
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3answers
3k views

Port sweep vs port scan

I was asked this question in an interview: "What is a port sweep?" When I replied with port scan he said that my answer was not a scan, it was a port sweep. I googled and found "tcp sweep: but not "...
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4answers
4k views

Eavesdropping vs. sniffing

I'm taking a coursera course, and they take pains when talking about network security to distinguish between eavesdropping and sniffing. According to their definitions, sniffing involves reading or ...
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2answers
40 views

What is the correct terminology for enforcing access control by means of cryptography, or on a privileged list?

I have a server that enforces access control by means of cryptography, by not giving up data, or by a combination thereof. By the former (cryptography), I mean: If a user requests some data, the ...
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2answers
406 views

Do people use “phising” as a real term, or just a mistaken spelling of “phishing”

Is "phising" a commonly accepted term, or just a mis-spelling of "phishing"? I've always understood "phishing" is a common security term. However, recently I've started seeing serious articles and ...
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3answers
13k views

What's the difference between “Due Care” and “Due Diligence”?

Can someone please explain the difference between "due care" and "due diligence"? They seem very similar to one another and after researching more and more, I'm getting confused. One tech book ...
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2answers
1k views

Difference between “weakness” and “vulnerability”?

What is the difference between the terms "vulnerability" and "weakness" when it comes to security? I was looking at the CWE page and it mentions that a weakness leads to a security vulnerability. I ...
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1answer
99 views

Benign, Malicious Domains and Definitions

I am working on a research project where we segregate domains used for malicious purpose from benign domains. However, my guide does not want the term malicious domain and benign domain in the paper....