Questions tagged [wpa2]

Security protocol (IEEE 802.11i) developed by the Wi-Fi Alliance to protect wireless networks.

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Airodump-ng shows AP as OPN and WPA2 at the same time. What does it mean?

The result of airodump-ng lists some AP's as both OPN and WPA2. How does the authentication work in that case? 12:34:56:78:AB:CD, 2011-09-09 15:29:47, 2022-10-21 16:09:05, 1, WPA2 OPN, CCMP, MGT, -75,...
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What information is WPA encrypting?

From wikpedia there are many types of wireless frames If a router uses WPA1/WPA2/WPA3 what frames are encrypted? Not all, I think. Also in frames, there is metadata and data. Is metadata (MAC address ...
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Listening to other network traffic on a known WiFi network using libpcap

I want to use libpcap to listen to the network traffic on another server on my home WiFi network. In this scenario i already know the password and ssid. I have already changed my network adaptor to be ...
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Constructing PTK key from sniffed traffic and decrypting WPA2 network traffic using it

Suppose there is a WPA2/PSK access point (AP) and 2 clients are connected to it, say X and Y. So X and Y both know the password or PSK required for authentication. From here: In case of WPA2/PSK when ...
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Speed up cracking a wpa2.hccapx file in hashcat

I'm trying to do a brute force with Hashcat on windows with a GPU cracking a wpa2.hccapx handshake. Based on my research I know the password is 10 characters, a mix of random lowercase + numbers only ...
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Hashcat problem Exhausted

I started testing some things on my own router. I managed to capture one valid handshake on Kali Linux with the appropriate commands (airmon-ng,airodumb etc.). I created a wordlist text file with my ...
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WPA2 Enterprise Authentication Certificate Security

While reading up about WPA2-Enterprise, it states that it is more preferred over WPA2-Personal as it allows authentication via digital certificates which prevents over-the-air attacks. However, I am ...
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How can I add some probable Keywords to hashcat, so I can Brute-Force attack a WPA2 Network faster

I´m trying to brute force attack a WPA2 Network with Hashcat and a wpa2.hccpax file, but when I do it says that it can take 45years to brute force it. So I had the idea that probably the network I´m ...
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723 views

How does the WPA2 crack work with Hashcat 22000 format hash lines?

I'm trying to understand the format and functionality of WPA2 hash lines that start with WPA*02* used with -m 22000 on hashcat. The way I understand it, this format was created as an improvement and ...
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Enterprise/Universities WIFI CA Certificate for android [duplicate]

I have read an article discussing the issues with enterprise WIFI not validating CA certificates which seemed to be a security flaw. android-11-break-enterprise-wifi-connection I've some similar ...
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Under what circumstances can WPA be cracked?

can someone please tell me under what circumstances can WPA be cracked? i'll appreciate it.
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Why does a 20-character key make WPA Personal more secure?

Can someone tell me why a 20-character key makes WPA Personal more secure? That really confuses me.
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How is the MIC (message integrity code) generated in WPA2?

We know that in WPA2's four-way handshake, a MIC is generated in order verify the supplicant (client). But how it is generated? Is something hashed to get the MIC? The PTK (pairwise transient key) ...
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What is Received Sequence Counter(RSC) in WPA authentication

In WPA 4-way handshake and in Message 3 (while GTK transfer), A RSC (Received sequence Number ) sent by the Authenticator (AP) to the supplicant. The only information I found about RSC is that it's ...
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Does my wireless adapter support the packet injection if it can send deauth packets?

When somebody sends the deauth packets, does it mean that the deauth packets are the packet injection proccess? Does my wireless adapter support the packet injection if it can send deauth packets?
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Hacking WPA/WPA2 passwords

Is there another method apart from using a wordlist to crack WPA/WPA2 passwords? because it's not going to work for all cases. Even using the biggest wordlist ever, there are cases where there won't ...
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Why do WEP, WPA, WPA2 need TKIP, AES, CCMP?

Okay so im looking into understanding more about Wireless security. One thing i have not be able to understand is what does WEP, WPA and WPA2 do without the help of TKIP, CCMP, and AES, and what do ...
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802.11s with SAE vs WPA-RSN (802.11i) on a MESH network

I'm investigating a protection options for a mesh network (p2p). The amount of nodes is constantly changing and possibly owned by different entities. We are thinking between 802.11s with SAE (...
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Recommended length for WPA-2 password in 2020

I'm auditing my network setup and trying to determine an appropriate password length with a random set of digits and numbers. I found a Security Stack exchange answer but it was written in 2012 and ...
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629 views

How does the EAP-TLS handshake work, exactly?

I'm trying to understand EAP-TLS authentication, but I'm struggling to understand a few bits: Before the supplicant sends any certificates to the server, it usually verifies the server's identity. ...
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269 views

WPA2-EAP-TLS with global client certificate

Is security compromised if every client uses the same client certificate to authenticate with WPA2-EAP-TLS? In essence, we want to provide an open wifi network, but want to ensure users cannot see ...
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What does WPA2 traffic look like to a packet sniffer that is not connected to the network?

Imagine there is a wireless network using WPA2, and an attacker has come along with his wireless card in monitor mode. What will the packets from that network look like? Is any information disclosed i....
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Using MAC Filtering in addition to WPA2 Encryption

I've been trying to find some answers regarding using MAC filtering on my router in addition to having WPA2 encryption but I couldn't find any clear ones. I understand that using MAC filtering solely ...
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571 views

Does WPA2 use TKIP or not?

I am writing my master's thesis about WLANs, and there is something what I don't really understand. This may be a dumb question but I didn't find a clear explanation. WPA uses encryption TKIP. WPA2 ...
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191 views

With WiFi now having protected management frames, is it still worth attempting an evil twin attack?

I was trying to aireplay'ng my home WiFi but I understood that with the new generation of APs, there is a system of protected management frames. So I'm asking, is it still worth it to perform an evil ...
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wifi cracking using a network adapter which doesn't support packet injection

I'm trying to crack my wifi (WPA-CCMP) password to test its strength and security, I'm using the commview for wifi and aircrack-ng software on windows 10. I've three laptops, Windows 10 (64bit) with ...
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How can wireless password cracking be detected?

Our team was hired for a red team engagement for a client. A part of the engagement is attempting to crack the WiFi passwords of their office APs. However, we obviously want to stay undetected. What ...
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How can I crack WPA2 hash with some limitations? [duplicate]

I want to crack an 8 character password, but I know this password doesn't contain more than 4 symbols, 4 uppercase letters, 4 lowercase letters and 4 numbers, and it contains at least 2 symbols, 2 ...
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2k views

What level of vulnerability has this WPA2 system?

I designed a WiFi host whose password contains a truncated SHA256 hash of a password + the time it was set. For example, “password2019-12-25-12:59” hashed to “acd2775f” which is truncated to 8 ...
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220 views

Connect with a WPA2 hash instead of cracking it

When stealing a WPA2 hash from a packet, why do you need to use brute force to find out the original password instead of just sending the router the hash itself and connect with it to the router?
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Is this the signature of a KRACK attack?

A router (or one spoofing as a router) unilaterally sent to a client an EAPOL packet 1 of 4, and then immediately sent 5 packets of EAPOL packet 3 of 4. Is this the signature of a KRACK attack? And ...
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How could a WPA2 WiFi with a 40+ character random password have been penetrated

I can confirm an intrusion from an unknown MAC address (identified as a Realtek device), getting a new, valid IP from the DHCP pool, and using the network for roughly 1 hour. The network is WPA2 - 1 ...
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Is WPA2 TKIP+AES with WPS disabled and strong keys secure? What about WPA2 Enterprise against a RADIUS server?

With all the recent vulnerabilities in WPA2 and so many low quality posts/articles in the internet about WPA2 security I am not being able to fully understand the risks of WPA2. Is WPA2 Personal ...
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Full Picture of Cracking Coffee Traffic [duplicate]

I'm trying to get a full answer to an interview question I got asked a while ago that keeps coming back to haunt me at night. Hoping that I can get a clearer picture of it here, or at least a link to ...
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Is it beneficial to know the first char of a wpa2 hash [duplicate]

All I will need to check is AAAAAAAA - AZZZZZZZ. So I will only have to check the A's but will checking the A's be faster knowing the first char , I can't see why it would be as it would have to ...
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How long to crack an 8 character WPA2 hash if first char is known

I know the first char is A and it's all upper alphanumeric. Is there a way to estimate how long a mid level single GPU using hashcat would take to crack it?
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Has Wi-Fi hacking gotten almost impossible?

I have read about Wi-Fi password cracking for a while and used different tools my self, such as: Airodump for monitoring Aicrack for getting key from cap files for WEP/WPA/WPA2 Reaver for WPS Bully ...
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How can I secure Wifi against these specific attacks?

I have found myself in a situation where I need to setup a somewhat secure Wifi network. I am primarily concerned about these attacks, however I welcome any advice about other attacks that I should be ...
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Why doesn't the fluxion attack steal credentials when authenticating to the network?

I ask this question because i am not happy with the answer here In a normal attack such as fluxion. You send DEAUTH packets to the victim wifi. Clone their access point and host an open wifi. Let the ...
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WPA2 Security for Security System/IoT

How safe are WiFi modules/devices for use in security systems or even IoT? How effective are dictionary and brute-force attacks in cracking WPA2? Online tutorials I've seen such as this claim to be ...
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Why do evil twin attacks against WiFi use a captive portal?

I was recently the victim of an evil twin attack on my WiFi network, probably by the new upstairs neighbors. It prompted me, with a captive portal, saying there had been an update and I needed to ...
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620 views

MIC vs PTK, what's the difference?

What is the difference between a MIC and a PTK and how applications like Aircrack-ng and Pyrit are concerned about? note I'm only concerned with WPA2-PSK From my research, a PTK is the pairwise ...
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Why are WPA2 passwords longer than 16 bytes more secure than 16 byte passwords?

In this good Information Security StackExchange question, the answers reveal that a long WPA2-PSK password does not degrade performance of the network. The reasoning is that the password itself is ...
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Generating passwords with rule: the contents within a 10 characters string must maintain a certain ratio of numbers and letters in no particular order

I'm playing around with Kali and am looking to crack my WPA2 default password. I started generating 10 character passwords with a charset of solely digits and upper alpha lastnight and after 10 mins, ...
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Is it safe to login using HTTP on a WPA2 protected home network?

I have a small network infrastructure in my home on which I'm hosting some services such as a website, file server and such. Many of those services have an administration web interface which isn't ...
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Key reinstallation attack how does it work without a pre-shared key?

The author of the key reinstallation attack released scripts on Github to test AP and clients. To test the clients, you have to connect to a fake AP but you still need to know the pre-shared key. Of ...
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WPA2 Enterprise: no risks for preconfigured clients when it comes to Rogue APs?

We are using, as default, PEAP and MS-CHAPv2 as inner authentication. I was concerned with security risks when it comes to rogue APs but a colleague told me that there are no risks for preconfigured ...
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453 views

is it possible to evil twin a WPA 2 Wifi using one of EAP methods?

the same as fluxion but without the captive portal just like this video Stealing 802.1x Credentials with Rogue AP & RADIUS server he was able to get the username and the password of an EAP wifi ...
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Can a rogue client bypass the Wi-Fi Access Point?

Let's assume that one client contains malware, and that it belongs to a Wi-Fi network protected with WPA2/Personal (hence, via a password known to the piece of malware), where some other vulnerable ...
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How to protect your wifi traffic from sniffing if untrusted people know the password?

WPA2 PSK is used to encrypt packets to and from a router. All the members on the network have the wifi password, so theoritically if one of them is untrustable they could be able to capture and ...

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