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Questions tagged [wpa2]

Security protocol (IEEE 802.11i) developed by the Wi-Fi Alliance to protect wireless networks.

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Chop Chop attack decrypting ARP results in multicast traffic takeover only

I read about chop chop attack and how it is used to decrypt packets on a WPA TKIP network, by chopping off byte by byte and bruteforcing the byte to trigger MIC failure. In case of MIC failure, would ...
umarkaa's user avatar
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aireplay-ng --deauth never finds BSSID available

I've been trying to crack wifi wpa2 handshake using airodump-ng and aireplay-ng. I'm using alfa awus-036acs adapter. sudo airodump-ng wlan0 sudo airodump-ng --bssid MAC ADDR of AP --channel 1 -w ...
Michał Matusik's user avatar
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1 answer
67 views

GTK and 4 way handshake

GTK is transferred at 3 message. https://www.wifi-professionals.com/2019/01/4-way-handshake What is for GTK key in 4 way handshake while PTK exists?
Ирина Грачева's user avatar
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103 views

Wpa ptk and gtk in detail

I have been checking Pairwise and Group Transient keys in a network for security. I understand PTK is derived from = PMK, AP nonce (ANonce), STA nonce (SNonce), AP MAC address, and STA MAC address ...
C.Unbay's user avatar
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What is a logical threshold in terms of users or devices to migrate from WPA personal to WPA enterprise?

I have a question in particular about WPA's Enterprise versus Personal without discussing the specifics of WPA2/WPA3. I've encountered quite a few situations where the Personal version of WPA2/WPA3 ...
Bob Ortiz's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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Is WPA2-Enterprise a more secure protocol designed to protect WiFi communication compared to WPA3-Personal?

Perhaps an unconventional comparison. If we ignore device compatibility for a moment and compare security features of WPA3(-three)-Personal with WPA2(-two)-Enterprise. Which is most secure and why is ...
Bob Ortiz's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
356 views

Using public WPA2 Enterprise credentials for public Wi-Fi

In South Korea, I've seen a couple of public Wi-Fi networks advertise a "secure" option. Stickers on public buses in Seoul and the captive portal login page for unencrypted Wi-Fi instruct ...
MasterCarl's user avatar
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1 answer
152 views

Is it possible to fully protect a home Wi-Fi network from remote attacks?

I've read that some ways to secure a home Wi-Fi network include encrypting the network using WPA2 Personal, and changing the default administrative username, password, and network name. But I'm not ...
racc_p's user avatar
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0 answers
142 views

How to secure old routers with WPA2 and with old firmware?

There are many old routers that support WPA2 that hadn't had a firmware update released since around 2010. Is it possible to secure their WPA2 implementation considering the more recent ...
sharp12345's user avatar
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1 answer
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Does WPA/WPA2 mixed mode have weak security even if I always connect using WPA2-AES?

My Wi-Fi access point is in "WPA/WPA2 mixed mode", which allows devices to connect to it using either WPA, WPA2-TKIP, or WPA2-AES. My Apple® smartphones and tablet computers are warning that ...
Flux's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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Is brute force for SSH similar to cracking WPA2 handshake?

I heard recently that WPA2 passwords can be brute forced if somebody captures handshake (which is not very difficult). Can somebody tell if a similar method exists for cracking SSH traffic? I mean ...
John Smith's user avatar
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2 answers
519 views

My Linux Mint just accessed a wifi network WPA2 without knowing the password [closed]

I brought my personal notebook to work. Asked the IT technician to access the WiFi on it (it's a federal institution of health research, lots of biological risks involved). Then he noticed that the ...
Vinicius Delaia's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
70 views

Force A Reply WPA/WPA2

I am working on an open source project, and am currently stumped. Let’s say I have a client connect to a wireless WPA network I am not authenticated to the wireless network I just have a wireless card ...
sonicCrypt0r's user avatar
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1 answer
498 views

How is WPA-PSK authentication done?

When I try connecting to wireless networks (with no RADIUS server), I enter the password and it goes through an authentication process. After the station successfully connects to the access point, a 4-...
Eric William's user avatar
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1 answer
2k views

Airodump-ng shows AP as OPN and WPA2 at the same time. What does it mean?

The result of airodump-ng lists some AP's as both OPN and WPA2. How does the authentication work in that case? 12:34:56:78:AB:CD, 2011-09-09 15:29:47, 2022-10-21 16:09:05, 1, WPA2 OPN, CCMP, MGT, -75,...
leonardo's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
2k views

Speed up cracking a wpa2.hccapx file in hashcat

I'm trying to do a brute force with Hashcat on windows with a GPU cracking a wpa2.hccapx handshake. Based on my research I know the password is 10 characters, a mix of random lowercase + numbers only ...
sghost's user avatar
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1 answer
318 views

WPA2 Enterprise Authentication Certificate Security

While reading up about WPA2-Enterprise, it states that it is more preferred over WPA2-Personal as it allows authentication via digital certificates which prevents over-the-air attacks. However, I am ...
new-to-networking's user avatar
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0 answers
387 views

How can I add some probable Keywords to hashcat, so I can Brute-Force attack a WPA2 Network faster

I´m trying to brute force attack a WPA2 Network with Hashcat and a wpa2.hccpax file, but when I do it says that it can take 45years to brute force it. So I had the idea that probably the network I´m ...
Super_X-dev's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
2k views

How does the WPA2 crack work with Hashcat 22000 format hash lines?

I'm trying to understand the format and functionality of WPA2 hash lines that start with WPA*02* used with -m 22000 on hashcat. The way I understand it, this format was created as an improvement and ...
ieatpizza's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
192 views

Under what circumstances can WPA be cracked?

can someone please tell me under what circumstances can WPA be cracked? i'll appreciate it.
Yilin LIU's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
375 views

Why does a 20-character key make WPA Personal more secure?

Can someone tell me why a 20-character key makes WPA Personal more secure? That really confuses me.
Yilin LIU's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
3k views

How is the MIC (message integrity code) generated in WPA2?

We know that in WPA2's four-way handshake, a MIC is generated in order verify the supplicant (client). But how it is generated? Is something hashed to get the MIC? The PTK (pairwise transient key) ...
Mr_VK's user avatar
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301 views

What is Received Sequence Counter(RSC) in WPA authentication

In WPA 4-way handshake and in Message 3 (while GTK transfer), A RSC (Received sequence Number ) sent by the Authenticator (AP) to the supplicant. The only information I found about RSC is that it's ...
sroy's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
539 views

Hacking WPA/WPA2 passwords

Is there another method apart from using a wordlist to crack WPA/WPA2 passwords? because it's not going to work for all cases. Even using the biggest wordlist ever, there are cases where there won't ...
empty's user avatar
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0 votes
2 answers
6k views

Why do WEP, WPA, WPA2 need TKIP, AES, CCMP?

Okay so im looking into understanding more about Wireless security. One thing i have not be able to understand is what does WEP, WPA and WPA2 do without the help of TKIP, CCMP, and AES, and what do ...
gene's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
213 views

802.11s with SAE vs WPA-RSN (802.11i) on a MESH network

I'm investigating a protection options for a mesh network (p2p). The amount of nodes is constantly changing and possibly owned by different entities. We are thinking between 802.11s with SAE (...
quinz's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
11k views

Recommended length for WPA-2 password in 2020

I'm auditing my network setup and trying to determine an appropriate password length with a random set of digits and numbers. I found a Security Stack exchange answer but it was written in 2012 and ...
R Samuel Klatchko's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
2k views

How does the EAP-TLS handshake work, exactly?

I'm trying to understand EAP-TLS authentication, but I'm struggling to understand a few bits: Before the supplicant sends any certificates to the server, it usually verifies the server's identity. ...
soundlarp's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
572 views

WPA2-EAP-TLS with global client certificate

Is security compromised if every client uses the same client certificate to authenticate with WPA2-EAP-TLS? In essence, we want to provide an open wifi network, but want to ensure users cannot see ...
Xandaros's user avatar
  • 103
5 votes
2 answers
3k views

What does WPA2 traffic look like to a packet sniffer that is not connected to the network?

Imagine there is a wireless network using WPA2, and an attacker has come along with his wireless card in monitor mode. What will the packets from that network look like? Is any information disclosed i....
RandyAnon's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
1k views

Using MAC Filtering in addition to WPA2 Encryption

I've been trying to find some answers regarding using MAC filtering on my router in addition to having WPA2 encryption but I couldn't find any clear ones. I understand that using MAC filtering solely ...
Martino Nikolovski's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
2k views

Does WPA2 use TKIP or not?

I am writing my master's thesis about WLANs, and there is something what I don't really understand. This may be a dumb question but I didn't find a clear explanation. WPA uses encryption TKIP. WPA2 ...
kampi's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
494 views

With WiFi now having protected management frames, is it still worth attempting an evil twin attack?

I was trying to aireplay'ng my home WiFi but I understood that with the new generation of APs, there is a system of protected management frames. So I'm asking, is it still worth it to perform an evil ...
Joe's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
1k views

wifi cracking using a network adapter which doesn't support packet injection

I'm trying to crack my wifi (WPA-CCMP) password to test its strength and security, I'm using the commview for wifi and aircrack-ng software on windows 10. I've three laptops, Windows 10 (64bit) with ...
pal's user avatar
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1 vote
3 answers
484 views

How can wireless password cracking be detected?

Our team was hired for a red team engagement for a client. A part of the engagement is attempting to crack the WiFi passwords of their office APs. However, we obviously want to stay undetected. What ...
trallgorm's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
29 views

How can I crack WPA2 hash with some limitations? [duplicate]

I want to crack an 8 character password, but I know this password doesn't contain more than 4 symbols, 4 uppercase letters, 4 lowercase letters and 4 numbers, and it contains at least 2 symbols, 2 ...
AFSC19's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
2k views

What level of vulnerability has this WPA2 system?

I designed a WiFi host whose password contains a truncated SHA256 hash of a password + the time it was set. For example, “password2019-12-25-12:59” hashed to “acd2775f” which is truncated to 8 ...
John's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
886 views

Connect with a WPA2 hash instead of cracking it

When stealing a WPA2 hash from a packet, why do you need to use brute force to find out the original password instead of just sending the router the hash itself and connect with it to the router?
user222483's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
137 views

Is this the signature of a KRACK attack?

A router (or one spoofing as a router) unilaterally sent to a client an EAPOL packet 1 of 4, and then immediately sent 5 packets of EAPOL packet 3 of 4. Is this the signature of a KRACK attack? And ...
Dev Kanchen's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
472 views

How could a WPA2 WiFi with a 40+ character random password have been penetrated

I can confirm an intrusion from an unknown MAC address (identified as a Realtek device), getting a new, valid IP from the DHCP pool, and using the network for roughly 1 hour. The network is WPA2 - 1 ...
Dev Kanchen's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
714 views

Is WPA2 TKIP+AES with WPS disabled and strong keys secure? What about WPA2 Enterprise against a RADIUS server?

With all the recent vulnerabilities in WPA2 and so many low quality posts/articles in the internet about WPA2 security I am not being able to fully understand the risks of WPA2. Is WPA2 Personal ...
M.E.'s user avatar
  • 111
0 votes
0 answers
55 views

Full Picture of Cracking Coffee Traffic [duplicate]

I'm trying to get a full answer to an interview question I got asked a while ago that keeps coming back to haunt me at night. Hoping that I can get a clearer picture of it here, or at least a link to ...
c0iledT3rminat0r's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
115 views

Is it beneficial to know the first char of a wpa2 hash [duplicate]

All I will need to check is AAAAAAAA - AZZZZZZZ. So I will only have to check the A's but will checking the A's be faster knowing the first char , I can't see why it would be as it would have to ...
user7668482's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
5k views

How long to crack an 8 character WPA2 hash if first char is known

I know the first char is A and it's all upper alphanumeric. Is there a way to estimate how long a mid level single GPU using hashcat would take to crack it?
user7668482's user avatar
-5 votes
1 answer
3k views

Has Wi-Fi hacking gotten almost impossible?

I have read about Wi-Fi password cracking for a while and used different tools my self, such as: Airodump for monitoring Aicrack for getting key from cap files for WEP/WPA/WPA2 Reaver for WPS Bully ...
wifiguy's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
456 views

How can I secure Wifi against these specific attacks?

I have found myself in a situation where I need to setup a somewhat secure Wifi network. I am primarily concerned about these attacks, however I welcome any advice about other attacks that I should be ...
john01dav's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
394 views

Why doesn't the fluxion attack steal credentials when authenticating to the network?

I ask this question because i am not happy with the answer here In a normal attack such as fluxion. You send DEAUTH packets to the victim wifi. Clone their access point and host an open wifi. Let the ...
yeah_well's user avatar
  • 3,794
1 vote
2 answers
294 views

WPA2 Security for Security System/IoT

How safe are WiFi modules/devices for use in security systems or even IoT? How effective are dictionary and brute-force attacks in cracking WPA2? Online tutorials I've seen such as this claim to be ...
user942937's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
2k views

Why do evil twin attacks against WiFi use a captive portal?

I was recently the victim of an evil twin attack on my WiFi network, probably by the new upstairs neighbors. It prompted me, with a captive portal, saying there had been an update and I needed to ...
Hugo's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
1k views

MIC vs PTK, what's the difference?

What is the difference between a MIC and a PTK and how applications like Aircrack-ng and Pyrit are concerned about? note I'm only concerned with WPA2-PSK From my research, a PTK is the pairwise ...
Adam's user avatar
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