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943 votes
11 answers

How to securely hash passwords?

If I hash passwords before storing them in my database, is that sufficient to prevent them being recovered by anyone? I should point out that this relates only to retrieval directly from the database,...
AviD's user avatar
  • 73.3k
1287 votes
3 answers

How does SSL/TLS work?

How does SSL work? I just realised we don't actually have a definitive answer here, and it's something worth covering. I'd like to see details in terms of: A high level description of the protocol. ...
Polynomial's user avatar
  • 135k
1287 votes
23 answers

XKCD #936: Short complex password, or long dictionary passphrase?

How accurate is this XKCD comic from August 10, 2011? I've always been an advocate of long rather than complex passwords, but most security people (at least the ones that I've talked to) are against ...
187 votes
6 answers

How do I deal with a compromised server?

I suspect that one or more of my servers is compromised by a hacker, virus, or other mechanism: What are my first steps? When I arrive on site should I disconnect the server, preserve "evidence", are ...
Lucas Kauffman's user avatar
181 votes
11 answers

Help! My home PC has been infected by a virus! What do I do now?

This is an attempt to ask a canonical question as discussed in this old meta post. The goal is to create something helpful that can be used as a duplicate when non experts ask about virus infections. ...
Anders's user avatar
  • 65.6k
184 votes
9 answers

How to determine what type of encoding/encryption has been used?

Is there a way to find what type of encryption/encoding is being used? For example, I am testing a web application which stores the password in the database in an encrypted format (WeJcFMQ/8+8QJ/w0hHh+...
Karthik's user avatar
  • 2,324
286 votes
11 answers

Why shouldn't we roll our own?

Why shouldn't we create our own security schemes? I see a lot of questions around here about custom crypto and custom security mechanisms, especially around password hashing. With that in mind, I'm ...
Polynomial's user avatar
  • 135k
668 votes
4 answers

Do any security experts recommend bcrypt for password storage?

On the surface bcrypt, an 11 year old security algorithm designed for hashing passwords by Niels Provos and David Mazieres, which is based on the initialization function used in the NIST approved ...
Sam Saffron's user avatar
  • 6,765
627 votes
7 answers

How to store salt?

If you expect to store user password securely, you need to do at least the following: $pwd=hash(hash($password) + salt) Then, you store $pwd in your system instead of the real password. I have seen ...
George's user avatar
  • 6,457
170 votes
13 answers

https security - should password be hashed server-side or client-side?

I am building a web application which requires users to login. All communication goes through https. I am using bcrypt to hash passwords. I am facing a dilemma - I used to think it is safer to make a ...
johndodo's user avatar
  • 1,935
67 votes
21 answers

Lessons learned and misconceptions regarding encryption and cryptology

Cryptology is such a broad subject that even experienced coders will almost always make mistakes the first few times around. However encryption is such an important topic, often we can't afford to ...
makerofthings7's user avatar
174 votes
4 answers

Where to store a server side encryption key?

I have some data that is symmetrically encrypted with a single key in my database. Rather than hard coding it into my code, I am looking for a safer way to store the encryption key. Where can I safely ...
Radek's user avatar
  • 1,843
164 votes
2 answers

I found unknown PHP code on my server. How do I de-obfuscate the code?

We've been getting a lot of noise regarding hacked PHP files here, and it's taking a lot of time to answer these questions. In many cases, they are off-topic. We've had a discussion about this on ...
Mark Buffalo's user avatar
  • 22.5k
94 votes
4 answers

SSL Certificate framework 101: How does the browser verify the validity of a given server certificate?

(I have a basic understanding of public/private key, hashing, digital signatures... I have been searching online & stack forums last couple days but cannot seem to find a satisfactory answer.) ...
SecurityNoob's user avatar
  • 1,051
179 votes
10 answers

How secure are virtual machines really? False sense of security?

I was reading this CompTIA Security+ SYO-201 book, and the author David Prowse claims that: Whichever VM you select, the VM cannot cross the software boundaries set in place. For example, a virus ...
T. Webster's user avatar
  • 2,379
128 votes
11 answers

Can my employer see what I do on the internet when I am connected to the company network?

This is an attempt at a canonical question following this discussion on Meta. The aim is to produce basic answers that can be understood by the general audience. Let's say I browse the web and use ...
INV3NT3D's user avatar
  • 3,997
271 votes
7 answers

Password Hashing: add salt + pepper or is salt enough?

Please Note: I'm aware that the proper method for secure password storage hashing is either scrypt or bcrypt. This question isn't for implementation in actual software, it's for my own understanding. ...
Jacco's user avatar
  • 7,702
204 votes
4 answers

Amount of simple operations that is safely out of reach for all humanity?

Cryptographic primitives usually assert some security level given as number of operations to mount an attack. Hash functions, for example, give different security levels for collision attacks, ...
Nakedible's user avatar
  • 4,601
622 votes
23 answers

How does changing your password every 90 days increase security?

Where I work I'm forced to change my password every 90 days. This security measure has been in place in many organizations for as long as I can remember. Is there a specific security vulnerability ...
Bill the Lizard's user avatar
371 votes
6 answers

What is certificate pinning?

I'm superficially familiar with SSL and what certs do. Recently I saw some discussion on cert pinning but there wasn't a definition. A DDG search didn't turn up anything useful. What is certificate ...
Son of the Wai-Pan's user avatar
889 votes
14 answers

What technical reasons are there to have low maximum password lengths?

I have always wondered why so many websites have very firm restrictions on password length (exactly 8 characters, up to 8 characters, etc). These tend to be banks or other sites where I actually care ...
enderland's user avatar
  • 8,211
546 votes
11 answers

Is my developer's home-brew password security right or wrong, and why?

A developer, let's call him 'Dave', insists on using home-brew scripts for password security. See Dave's proposal below. His team spent months adopting an industry standard protocol using Bcrypt. ...
nallenscott's user avatar
  • 4,739
419 votes
14 answers

How is it possible that people observing an HTTPS connection being established wouldn't know how to decrypt it?

I've often heard it said that if you're logging in to a website - a bank, GMail, whatever - via HTTPS, that the information you transmit is safe from snooping by 3rd parties. I've always been a little ...
Joshua Carmody's user avatar
105 votes
8 answers

How can I reliably erase all information on a hard drive?

As storage technologies change over time, using different encodings and remappings to deal with sector errors, the best way to permanently erase/wipe/shred data changes also. Methods for flash drives ...
nealmcb's user avatar
  • 20.8k
219 votes
7 answers

Does https prevent man in the middle attacks by proxy server?

There is a desktop client A connecting to website W in a https connection A --> W Somehow between A and W, there is a proxy G. A --> G --> W In this case, will G be able to get the ...
jojo's user avatar
  • 2,301
79 votes
6 answers

How to disclose a security vulnerability in an ethical fashion?

How to disclose a security vulnerability in an ethical way? I've heard there are various schools of thought on this topic. I'd like to know the pros/cons of each.
Olivier Lalonde's user avatar
217 votes
4 answers

Is a rand from /dev/urandom secure for a login key?

Lets say I want to create a cookie for a user. Would simply generating a 1024 bit string by using /dev/urandom, and checking if it already exists (looping until I get a unique one) suffice? Should I ...
Incognito's user avatar
  • 5,264
255 votes
8 answers

Why are salted hashes more secure for password storage?

I know there are many discussions on salted hashes, and I understand that the purpose is to make it impossible to build a rainbow table of all possible hashes (generally up to 7 characters). My ...
user avatar
38 votes
8 answers

Client side password hashing

Edit: Updated to put more emphasis on the goal - peace of mind for the user, and not beefing up the security. After reading through a few discussions here about client side hashing of passwords, I'm ...
Foy Stip's user avatar
  • 391
106 votes
4 answers

Why is writing zeros (or random data) over a hard drive multiple times better than just doing it once?

Lots of different programs, such as Darik's Boot and Nuke, let you write over a hard drive multiple times under the guise of it being more secure than just doing it once. Why?
Tom Marthenal's user avatar
167 votes
3 answers

What are rainbow tables and how are they used?

Where can I find one? Is there a pot of gold at the end? How do I protect against them? From the Area51 proposal This question was IT Security Question of the Week. Read the Sep 09, 2011 blog ...
AviD's user avatar
  • 73.3k
71 votes
6 answers

Differences between using Tor browser and VPN

I can't quite figure out the differences between using the Tor browser and using a VPN (like concretely proXPN). From what I understand the idea is the same, that they both hide the IP address. The ...
Thomas's user avatar
  • 3,861
165 votes
10 answers

How do you explain the necessity of "nuke it from orbit" to management and users?

When a machine has been infected with malware, most of us here immediately identify the appropriate action as "nuke it from orbit" - i.e. wipe the system and start over. Unfortunately, this is often ...
Polynomial's user avatar
  • 135k
105 votes
5 answers

How does SSLstrip work?

I've been reading up on SSLstrip and I'm not 100% sure on my understanding of how it works. A lot of documentation seems to indicate that it simply replaces occurrences of "https" with "http" in ...
Scott Helme's user avatar
  • 3,238
50 votes
11 answers

Does hashing a file from an unsigned website give a false sense of security?

Consider this. Many websites with software downloads also make available MD5 or SHA1 hashes, for users to verify the integrity of the downloaded files. However, few of these sites actually use HTTPS ...
Iszi's user avatar
  • 27.1k
79 votes
3 answers

Are URLs viewed during HTTPS transactions to one or more websites from a single IP distinguishable?

For example, say the following are HTTPS URLs to two websites by one IP over 5 mins: "", "", "", "", "". Would monitoring of packets reveal: nothing, reveal only ...
blunders's user avatar
  • 5,072
116 votes
18 answers

Does an established HTTPS connection mean a line is really secure?

From the view of somebody offering a web application, when somebody connects with TLS (https) to our service and submits the correct authentication data, is it safe to transmit all sensitive data over ...
Peter Smit's user avatar
  • 2,749
84 votes
6 answers

Does SSL/TLS (https) hide the urls being accessed [duplicate]

Suppose I type this in my browser and an attacker is watching all traffic from me to my ISP. What information is protected by ...
Jus12's user avatar
  • 1,375
72 votes
3 answers

Is it enough to only wipe a flash drive once?

According to the documentation for the "diskscrb" command for wiping conventional hard drives: "Conforms to and exceeds the Government ...
LanceBaynes's user avatar
  • 6,279
71 votes
5 answers

Does a Virtual Machine stop malware from doing harm?

I would like to know if it is safe for the host system of a virtual machine (VM - VirtualBox OSE in my case) to execute malware. Can a virus break out and read or write data from the host system? ...
Martin Thoma's user avatar
  • 3,932
68 votes
6 answers

How do some sites (e.g. online banks) only ask for specific characters from a password without storing it as plaintext?

I thought How can a system enforce a minimum number of changed characters... would answer my question, but it seems this is a different case. When I sign on to my online banking account, I'm prompted ...
alexmuller's user avatar
  • 1,061
97 votes
9 answers

Can my company see what HTTPS sites I went to?

At work my company uses internet monitoring software (Websense). I know if I visit a https ssl-encrypted site (such as they can't see what I'm doing on the site since all ...
IAmARegisteredUser's user avatar
60 votes
4 answers

Are there DRM techniques to effectively prevent pirating?

A question on Skeptics.SE asks whether current DRM techniques effectively prevent pirating: Is DRM effective? The question for IT Security is: Can DRM be made effective, and are there any examples? ...
MrHen's user avatar
  • 703
139 votes
8 answers

How hard is it to intercept SMS (two-factor authentication)?

A lot of two-factor authentication mechanisms use SMS to deliver single-use passphrase to the user. So how secure is it? Is it hard to intercept the SMS message containing the passphrase? Do mobile ...
Paul Podlipensky's user avatar
83 votes
7 answers

Are random URLs a safe way to protect profile photos?

I would like to move from sequential to random user IDs, so I can host profile photos publicly, i.e. How long must user IDs be to keep anyone from ...
owenfi's user avatar
  • 933
82 votes
13 answers

What are the pros and cons of site wide SSL (https)?

What are the pros and cons of encrypting all HTTP traffic for the whole site through SSL, as opposed to SSL on just the login page?
Olivier Lalonde's user avatar
58 votes
6 answers

Can wiped SSD data be recovered?

I was reading another post on destroying IDE drives, and how you could remove data, wipe it, or just destroy the drive. The removed data would still be there in some state, although not easily ...
cutrightjm's user avatar
  • 1,743
123 votes
5 answers

How much can I trust Tor?

How much can I depend on Tor for anonymity? Is it completely secure? My usage is limited to accessing Twitter and Wordpress. I am a political activist from India and I do not enjoy the freedom of ...
Freedom's user avatar
  • 1,265
90 votes
12 answers

How feasible is it for a CA to be hacked? Which default trusted root certificates should I remove?

This question has been revised & clarified significantly since the original version. If we look at each trusted certificate in my Trusted Root store, how much should I trust them? What factors ...
makerofthings7's user avatar
23 votes
4 answers

If the public key can't be used for decrypting something encrypted by the private key, then how do digital signatures work?

I'm learning asymmetric encryption in the use case of ssl/tls protocol. I can understand that the public key (like a padlock) can encrypt (lock) something and only the private key can decrypt (open)...
Aaron Shen's user avatar

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