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a method for constructing a message authentication code based on a cryptographic hash function.

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I just read this article, which is a top 10 list of developer crypto mistakes. In number 7, he states that "HMAC should not be applied to the plaintext but instead to the ciphertext combined with the … IV." I always thought that the HMAC was computed from the plaintext. After doing some more reading, I realised that my initial thoughts were incorrect. However, I still do not understand why the IV needs to be concatenated to the ciphertext before applying the HMAC. Why is this the case? …
asked Apr 30 '17 by Enigmatic Cipher