72

You're focusing on a very narrow scope here. The CIA triad is about security of a whole system, not just an encrypted message. That being said, all elements of the triad do apply to your example: Confidentiality: As you mentioned, encryption's primary purpose is to enforce confidentiality. Integrity: Encryption does not automatically provide integrity. An ...


58

Tor uses a routing method called Onion routing. Much like an onion, each message (the core of the onion) is covered with layers of encryption. image attribution Your message is encrypted several times before it leaves your device. Node A can only decrypt (peel) the layer A, under which it would see the address of the next node. After the packet reaches the ...


42

While Polynomial's answer is outstanding, it may aid the understanding of the CIA principle to add examples how each aspect can be broken, and how each aspect can be protected. Confidentiality The purpose of Confidentiality is simply put to control "Who reads what?". Confidentiality can be broken if information is leaked to an unauthorized party. What kind ...


27

In a perfect world, you are right: there should be no point in keeping data encrypted in RAM. The OS should keep strong separation between processes, clear RAM when it is reallocated to another process, and, if the attack model allows for an attacker stealing the device afterwards and doing some harddisk analysis, encrypt the swap (or use no swap at all, ...


25

It depends on whether you are talking about the concepts, the terminology, or the acronym. Concepts of confidentiality, integrity and availability of information have been used by war generals for quite some time; for instance, one can see Julius Caesar operating along these lines during the Gallic Wars and he was certainly not the first to grasp the ...


24

To answer my own question: It seems that some systems are, or rather were indeed insecure, leaking environment information to other processes. A similar issue to the present one is raised on github by user 'mitchblank' for the 'mosh' application (mobile shell). The author writes: Background: in the process image argv[] and envp[] are stored in the same ...


19

PII by definition is any information that can be used on its own or with other information to identify, contact, or locate a single person, or to identify an individual in context. And to answer your question, image of signature is a sensitive PII as it can be used to identify a person. As base64 encoding only obfuscate the data, that also shall be ...


18

To a large extent, yes. See RFC 4880, section 5.1: for each recipient, there is a "Public-Key Encrypted Session Key Packet" which contains the recipient key ID. This key ID is a 32-bit value which is used as index in key servers; there are key ID collisions, so this is not an absolute, totally accurate indication of the recipient, but it still gives a lot of ...


17

TOR uses the principle of onion routing. Let us say there are 3 TOR nodes A,B and C involved (selected randomly by client) and the message is m. We assume the corresponding public keys of these nodes to be Pa,Pb and Pc. The message is repeatedly encrypted by the client starting with the public key of the exit node (Pc) followed by Pb and in the end Pa (...


16

It really depends on what you're trying to protect. SSL only protects data in transit, and between the two set points. It doesn't protect data at rest, and it doesn't offer any guarantee that the data came from the person claimed. So if you need to protect the data while it's stored at either of the endpoints, then encrypting it might make sense. Or if ...


15

Being able to process strings of arbitrary length without leaking information on their length seems to be very hard (i.e. I don't see how to do it) because of caches. A very long string, by definition, will take a lot of room, and thus reading the string will incur interaction with the caches. Accessing the string from RAM will trigger cache misses, and also ...


14

In a similar vein, but slightly different. Rather than using audio recordings this link shows that you can point a laser at the back of a laptop monitor and determine what is being typed based on the vibrations of the screen. Here is the original presentation slides


12

This is known as "Acoustic Keyboard Eavesdropping". In 2004 Dmitri Asonov and Rakesh Agrawal from IBM published a paper (pdf) that describes such an attack. The following is the abstract of that paper: We show that PC keyboards, notebook keyboards, telephone and ATM pads are vulnerable to attacks based on differentiating the sound emanated by ...


12

This is far-fetched, but non-obvious information leaks: 1. We must keep empty drawers locked If someone knows that there is a regular meeting discussing secret project X every Tuesday and Friday; and noticed that the drawers are always empty and unlocked on Tuesday and Friday, but locked otherwise, then it's pretty clear indication that the content of ...


11

Theoretically yes. In practice, it is a bit complex for amateurs. In Older Times, when people used dialup modems, plugging on the line was just a matter of a pair of crocodile clips and hooking another modem, tuned to be "receive only". Nowadays, people use ADSL, coaxial cable or optic fiber, and the much higher data rates mean that inexpert plugging will ...


11

A replay attack is an attack where you record a legitimate transaction and then replay it at a later date. It is not an attack on confidentiality because the attacker isn't learning any new information: he has the same data than what he recorded in the first place. it might lead to an unauthorized access but that is a different issue. It is not an attack ...


11

Your question is difficult to answer because security is a property of a system, not a property of a single technology or algorithm. Confidentiality It can be assured using encryption, but that's not enough. You need to look at the whole system to give a meaningful answer. Here's a system that uses encryption and doesn't guarantee confidentiality: The WEP ...


10

This is not very uncommon. Unfortunately you have no single solution, unless the individual is in the same locale as you (in which case you may be able to take legal action if he is causing you to incur costs) Generally, there is no technical solution, as this is a human problem. They could be doing it deliberately, as Pacerier suggests, or they may just ...


10

Yes, multiple layers of encryption using different algorithms and different keys make the encryption as hard as the hardest in the chain. IIRC this was adressed in Bruce Schneier's book Applied Cryptography (2nd edition). But the important part is to use different algorithms, or at least different keys. Algorithms that use "round keys" are often optimized ...


9

In security, attacks are generally divided into two categories: Opportunist attacks and targeted attacks. The former are generally low-effort and low intelligence (ie, no specific information or recon on the target), the latter have to be assumed to be motivated, well-equipped, and intelligent. The broader issue behind this question is: Does obscurity do ...


9

Modern operating systems work with virtual memory management so that by default it is not possible for user-space / user-mode processes to directly access other processes memory. But in Windows (don't know if this apply to Linux, too) there are interfaces that allow standard users to access the process memory of other processes running with the same ...


9

CIA are the aspects of a system that information security strives to protect. Authentication and authorization (important and distinct concepts) are security controls that are used to protect the system with regard to the CIA properties. For example, authenticating a user and checking that they are authorized to access the data ensures the confidentiality ...


8

You've got most of the likely approaches mentioned in your question but here's a couple of points on them. Usage. This is the easiest way to start blocking traffic, and what the a lot of ISPs seem to go with most. Have a "fair use" policy which is based on bandwidth and then start taking action against users to go significantly over it. Unfortunately in a ...


7

The short answer is that when you put your data on the cloud the provider has the technical capability to do what they want with it. They could sell it, trade it, share it, etc. What is keeping them from doing just that is a) the terms of service or contract agreed (read it to make sure they don't have rights to your data as some claim rights over anything ...


7

Memory can become visible to other processes by: being available once the original process using it has returned it to the OS. Memory isn't cleared and a successive process could perform a malloc() and retrieve info belonging to a previously running process (note chapter 8 of Linux Device Drivers - particularly the footnote on the first page) pages being ...


7

After reading your question several times, I think I understand what you mean. You're talking about an Administrator in the sense of Joomla! or WordPress administrator. Where an admin is a concept created by the application itself, and that admin has no access to the actual server. In applications (Joomla!, WordPress, ModX, Concrete5, DotNetNuke, etc.), the ...


7

This doesn't solve the root problem, but might be a useful workaround. You can start giving your address out as [first name][2 digit number][+][last name]@gmail.com. Gmail ignores everything after the + and you can filter for emails which don't include your last name. (It would probably be worth going through the filtered emails every ~week to catch emails ...


7

Are private pastes on pastebin.com vulnerable? Absolutely. Remember, if you are using a free service, then you are the product. Pastebin as a free service is definitely vulnerable. Personally, I use pastebin quite often. It's a very good service, and I am not worried about the website owners running off with my private information because I do not provide ...


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