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2

Part of this boils down to how proxychains works in general. In order to proxy traffic from arbitrary programs (that may or may not have proxy support), proxychains uses the LD_PRELOAD environment variable to load itself as a shared library into the program that is being called. Since it is "pre"-loaded, the functions exposed by the proxychains library take ...


3

For validating the certificate it is relevant that the domain in the URL matches the certificate. The certificate itself can be provided from any IP address, i.e. it does not have to be the public visible IP address but can also be a local one like 127.0.0.1. The mapping of domain to IP address is usually done by DNS but can also be done with a local hosts ...


4

What you're seeing is name canonicalization during the formation of the SPN. Kerberos requires clients to resolve names to the official record in an attempt to restrict hijacking/ticket theft and Windows enforces that. Both Windows 7 and Windows 10 will do this by default, but it's possible to configure it to not do that through registry settings like ...


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