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What if in IPsec I have confidentiality BUT NOT integrity? What are the dangers?

It's not true that flipping bits always garbles the resulting plaintext. In cipher-block-chaining (CBC) mode, manipulating one bit of the initialization vector leads to a corresponding one-bit change ...
Ja1024's user avatar
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How is the authenticity and integrity of the various chips inside laptops and mobile phones ensured by their vendors?

Consumer devices mainly prioritize securing the main SOC, while efforts exist to ensure third-party chip firmware integrity via isolated environments like Intel SGX, Qualcomm SEE, and ARM PSA. ...
X64X2's user avatar
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