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A prudent leaker may easily spot some of the techniques, like changes in punctuation or misspelling, particularity when the leaker is familiar with the sender's level of writing, or simply one doesn't expect such mistakes in a published document. You can still exploit "slight changes", but with more cautious approach, which is using "Synonyms". For instance,...


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I am legally obliged to distribute a document (probably by email, probably saved as MS word, or a PDF) to several hundred recipients. The recipients are legally obliged to keep it confidential. However, based on past experience I'm pretty sure it's going to end up publicly leaked pretty quickly. (in the past it's been freely distributed verbatim) ...


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Unique watermarking is the most reliable way to identify leakers. If every recipient gets an identical copy of the document, you can't use a copy as evidence to identify the source of the leak. I read a paper recently on using fonts to watermark the document. By using nearly identical glyphs pulled from different Unicode character sets, the author was ...


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You can earmark the pdfs individually for each recipient in a number of ways, but one of the tricks I've heard used a couple of times is to individually encode a signature in each document sent out to each recipient using non-printing characters such as zero-width spaces. These will be copied if someone copies and pastes the material verbatim. This will not ...


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There are a bunch of ways to modify the document so that they are not visibly different, but still be able to uniquely identify each document. Here are a few ideas. Leaks of entire document Changes in Meta data You could put a unique hash in each of the document's meta data. Slight changes in text color You could use slightly different colors of text in ...


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