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Numerous public CAs have multiple root certificates in trust store for different reasons and largely depends on their business operations. Often roots from same vendor differ by: List of usages Public key or signature algorithm support Assurance level Redundancy For example, Amazon Root CA 2 and Amazon Root CA 4 allows Code Signing certificates in their ...


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I feel your confusion. From your provided link, I copied the first paragraph: The Web Services Enhancements for Microsoft .NET (WSE) allows a sender, which can either be an XML Web service or its client, to encrypt portions of the SOAP message by using the public key for the recipient's X.509 certificate. A receiver, which can be either a Web service or its ...


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I would suggest that this is just base64 encoded PEM: $ echo "-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----" | base64 LS0tLS1CRUdJTiBDRVJUSUZJQ0FURS0tLS0tCg== $ echo "-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----" | base64 | cut -c-3 LS0


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IANA operation details on the root key ceremonies and procedures are at https://www.iana.org/dnssec You may be interested by section §4.2.2 of https://www.iana.org/dnssec/dps/ksk-operator/ksk-dps.txt Access to and management of cryptographic hardware is based on the principle of successive barriers in three tiers, requiring at least seven trusted ...


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The PCI DSS concerns itself with the following pieces of data: Except insofar as it might include Customer Name, billing address is not PCI protected data, and there are no PCI requirements around storage, encryption, or lack thereof. Instead, that data is PII, and should be protected in line with whatever PII standards apply to your locality.


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Indeed, a certificate contains a public key plus information about who this public key belongs to. It is impossible to sign with a certificate. But there is a moderately common imprecision which consists of using “certificate” to mean “private key for which a certificate exists”. This is what's going on here. The private key is mathematically related to the ...


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