New answers tagged

0

"You need to upgrade" is absolutely a valid response. TLS 1.0 was defined in 1999 and has been around for 20 years now. TLS 1.2, which is considered secure by today's standards, has been around since 2008, which is plenty of time for even slow companies to migrate to it. But version numbers alone isn't what gets managers to order an upgrade of their ancient ...


-1

Very simple solution for such issue is just redirect all https request to http using 301 and visa versa. this will refresh browser and server ssl caching. hope this will help.


5

On eu-store.wacom.com, some images from their Amazon CDN are requested over http instead of https Let me continue from that. Firefox says it's not 100% secure because it's loading unprotected content. I would say, naively... it's 95% secure Now, it doesn't mean the site wacom.com is not legitimate, but perhaps misconfigured. If you buy today from that site,...


0

The big concern with unencrypted IoT devices is not just privacy issues so much as the vulnerability of the device itself. Let's say you have a smart refrigerator that sends unencrypted API calls to a server that also communicates with the app on your phone to let you know when you need to buy more milk. IoT devices with unencrypted connections tend to ...


2

The same as using plaintext (unencrypted and unauthenticated) communication elsewhere. What exactly that means, depends on your threat model. Smart Bulb, Dumb Protocol Imagine you had a smart lightbulb in your home. You could use an app to control the brightness and the warmth of the bulb. It even offers an API, so you can control it via a Raspberry Pi ...


8

My questions are, why is this inconsistency happening This is known as mixed-content,where the page is loaded with HTTPS,while some parts(images) are loaded via Insecure HTTP. how can I verify that the store page is indeed wacom's As long as your system has not been compromised then the only way is to use HTTPS everywhere and visit the correct URL or ...


14

On eu-store.wacom.com, some images from their Amazon CDN are requested over http instead of https. This can be solved by installing HTTPS Everywhere and turning on "Encrypt All Sites Eligible": The gray padlock means all resources are served securely. So the webstore is most likely not compromised. They are still using an outdated cipher based on CBC and ...


2

If you are asking whether or not an HTTPS connection will show the unencrypted URL in the network data, then the answer is partially YES. Contrary to the previously accepted answer, the URL does not get encrypted like the rest of the data. The base URL (ex. amazon.com) will appear as Server Name Indication extension (SNI) unencrypted data. Only the base ...


3

Good question. The certificates of the most trusted CAs are normally included into software install package, e.g. into browser installer, into OS installer, or are preinstalled on device like smartphone. That's why the browser (or some other application) will notice if certificate is really from the specified CA.


17

Is the only protection here that Bob actually checks that the public key on the returned certificate matches what he originally sent in his request to the CA? If the public key was switched before the CA used it to create the certificate, then Bob's web site won't work at all. The private key, which he has kept safe, will only work with his original ...


1

Apache om Debian 9 (Stretch) uses OpenSSL 1.0.2 (see apache2-bin dependency on libssl1.0), so you can use the approaches documented in that linked post. You can modify the startup script to export LD_PRELOAD=/path/to/libsslkeylog.so and SSLKEYLOGFILE=/tmp/your.keys. How to do so is dependent on the application. For systemd you could try systemctl edit ...


5

It is possible to do limited traffic analysis without doing decryption based on timing, size and direction of transferred data. For example HTTP/1 has a request-response pattern where the requests from the client are usually small while the responses from the server are much larger. Additionally the information in the TLS handshake often allow to distinguish ...


-1

Let's talk about this meaningfully. SSL certificate is to make a trust between the parties, and the certificate authorities such as Verisign, Comodo are Trusted Third party(TTP), which are trusted by first party(user) and second party(web server). Hence, both parties implicitly promise to trust those 3rd parties and browser vendors or organizations ...


1

No, such a thing does not exist in any TLS standard. As per the name, TLS works on the transport layer and has no knowledge of the inner protocols. The URL gets encrypted just like the rest of the data. Keep in mind that in HTTP, data can be part of the URL. This is known as 'URL parameters' or 'GET parameters'. You might still want to consider an MITM ...


1

The private key is linked to the certificate, so if you use the same certificate at different places, you also need to use the same private key. If you want each server to have a different key, you need to generate different certificates.


2

Would this be sufficent in terms of being able to securly access PHPMYAdmin and upload files or should I be using SSL aswell? I am guessing you are talking about Secure socket tunneling to run the localhost on the remote server as given here. The secure socket tunneling protocol already does SSL/TLS provides transport-level security with key negotiation, ...


4

This will help to protect against BGP Hijacking attacks. During a BGP hijacking attack, the attacker can re-route the traffic though its own servers, allowing him to perform a MITM attack. This allows him to create malicious responses to the challenges, which will be accepted by Let's Encrypt, and a certificate will be issued to the wrong person because of ...


1

Their server connects to your HTTP server and/or to your authoritative DNS server (depending what kind of validation you choose to use) from multiple different data centers connected to the internet backbone through different Tier-1 ISPs. Imagine they host their own servers in multiple cloud regions and require 9 confirmations from (AWS, GCP and Azure) by (...


0

As stated earlier by Sjoerd 'Static cipher suites are suites that do NOT provide forward secrecy'. So our objective is to limit ciphers suites to those which do have forward secrecy feature. Forward Secrecy is provided by the ephemeral aspect of DHE (Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral) and ECDHE (Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral) ciphers. Ephemeral DH uses a ...


2

The Tor Project hosts some bootstrapping servers called directory servers. They contain a list (a directory) with information about all Tor relays currently online. This info about each relay includes the public key. The directory is signed with one of the directory keys[1]. Those keys are distributed along with your copy of the Tor client[2]. Therefore, ...


2

In general, SSL/TLS does offer MITM protection. It encrypts data before it leaves your computer that only the endpoint can decrypt and vice versa. A MITM attack is ineffective against encrypted TLS connections because even if you intercept the public keys that the endpoints exchange, it still does not know their private keys. As for a Tor, it is not ...


3

HTTPS encrypts the content but: Anyone watching the stream, including your ISP, can easily see that you are going to www.bluebuggybumpers.com, or my.aids.results.com, or what have you. A VPN blinds your local ISP to where you go, although the VPN is capable of the same monitoring. The site you visit directly see's your IP address and can generally ...


0

Isn't it a threat that anyone can see my secure website? TLS was designed to protect the application payload. It was not designed to protect the meta information of the connection, i.e. the domain name, source and target IP address, number of bytes transmitted, timing of traffic etc. There can definitely be a privacy risk when somebody is getting these ...


0

A common security flaw is logging plaintext passwords by mistake: Twitter Facebook Google Robinhood Elsevier Even if you have transport security, it has advantages to not have the plaintext password on your server. Transport security protects against attackers. If you want to protect yourself against your own mistakes, you need client side hashing.


2

For inspiration, look at how SSH key exchange works: The client maintains a table of "known servers" that matches an IP address to a hash. When connecting to a server, the client receives the server certificate (public key) and computes the hash of it, and looks up the server's IP address in the "known servers" table. If the client has seen this server ...


5

When the attacker sends the server's certificate, the client will encrypt a shared secret (used to generate the symmetric encryption key for the session) with the public key of that certificate. The attacker will then be unable to recover the secret since they don't have the certificate's private key, so they won't be able to complete the TLS handshake.


47

However, in this scheme, couldn't an impostor just present the certificate after getting it from the real server? An impostor cannot present, and take advantage of, the real server's certificate unless it also has the matching private key. This is true whether the SAN DNS entry or IP entry are used to identify the certificate being presented.


24

Certificates don’t exist in isolation. To be trustworthy, a certificate must be signed by an issuer; these issuers are called Certificate Authorities. Each browser (or operating system) maintains their own list of a few hundred trusted CAs (called Root CAs) that it already knows and trusts; and your employer or school may have their own private issuing root ...


0

You could setup a Kerberos server on one of your Raspberry Pis. It would achieve secure authentication with all your clients. The best part about kerberos is that it is supported by a large number of clients and daemons. You will easily find APIs for integration in almost all popular languages and Operating Systems. SSH and web servers are kerberised in a ...


41

... change the public key in the certificate and send it to client. Digital signature is same, all the properties except public key are same. So how can browser understand the difference? The browser checks that the signature of the certificates fits the certificate. Since the public key is included in the signature and the public key is changed, the ...


25

At the end of the TLS negotiation (the "Finished" message), the client and the server take a hash of the entire conversation they've had so far, and they compare it. If it differs - as it would if someone performed a MitM attack on the certificate - then the connection is dropped. To quote RFC 5246: The Finished message is the first one protected with ...


0

For the purposes of securing an API for an Android app a self-signed certificate is fine. If you pin multiple certificates (or even your own CA), and use only one, you can even revoke them without an update to your app. This is one of very few cases where self-signed, DV or EV makes no difference. Do make sure that you use at least DV on all websites ...


3

I've seen many places refer to "256 bits certificates" in SSL encryption. You are most likely thinking about 256-bit symmetric cipher key sizes. There are no 256-bit certificates, but there are plenty of 256-bit symmetric keys (e.g. keys for AES, a common cipher in TLS). when I look at these certificates in browser I see 256 bytes instead. With the ...


0

HTTPS does not prevent DNS spoofing, since these two protocols work at different layers and in fact HTTPS, because of the X.509 certificates that underline the Web PKI, need the DNS (both at certificate issuance time and also at client verification time), while the DNS does not need HTTPS to work (of course when you do not use it explicitly like with the ...


7

Here are a few details that might help clarify the situation: Ports less than 1024 are (in most OSes) privileged ports that require root to run anything on them. This is intended as a security feature to make it more difficult for an attacker to host services on important ports on a compromised server. As a result, root is required to run anything on port ...


0

the people suggesting putting internal names in a public certificate authority should look at public certificate transparency logs and understand this leaks information about internal systems names to the internet https://blog.appsecco.com/certificate-transparency-part-3-the-dark-side-9d401809b025 https://www.ssl.com/faqs/questions-about-certificate-...


1

Asymmetric private keys have two basic operations: they can Sign a message such that anybody with the corresponding public key can verify that the private-key-holder signed it and it hasn't been tampered with, and they can Decrypt a message that was encrypted using the public key. In addition to the direct usefulness of these operations, the private key can ...


0

The private key is part of a key pair: a public key and private key that belong to each other. The certificate contains the public key. The client encrypts data using the public key and sends it to the server. The server can only decrypt it if it has the corresponding private key. If the connection is set up correctly, this is proof that the server owns the ...


1

This can be done by certificates on domain names that point to RFC1918 addresses. Each device gets its own subdomain (c12345.umbrellacams.com), and each subdomain has its own certificate. When installing the device in the network, it has to send its address to the server in order to update the DNS entry on the subdomain. When the user visits the camera in ...


5

Is it dangerous to add a custom cert authority to a browser? It is pretty dangerous. The owner of this CA can use it for man in the middle attacks or to impersonate arbitrary web sites since your browser will trust the CA to create certificates for arbitrary sites. Using such attacks he can then intercept your passwords and other sensitive data. For ...


4

It's two separate things. LetsEncrypt set their certificates to be short-lived because they expect their users to constantly renew them, short-lived certificates limit the exposure time of a lost private key. Paid certificates are usually issued manually, and hence live a bit longer, for practical reasons (much harder to issue certs every 90 days when ...


1

As long as you control DNS, it's trivial, even with Let's encrypt. Simply use DNS validation with LE, and they will happily issue a certificate. The point of this process isn't to ensure that anyone can use your site (that's your problem), but to ensure that noone will get a certificate for sites they don't know. With many paid certificates, you can ...


3

The certificate and DNS record for IP public are irrelevant, you can buy any certificates without publish your sites. All you have to do is to prove you are the owner of that domain by clicking the approval link which send to your domain registration email or a DNS TXT record only.


0

The first error was because s_client doesn't like to see the root CA in sent in the TLS connection. The second error is because s_client doesn't trust the root CA. To solve this second error, run s_client with the -CAfile option and specify the root CA.


76

How does that work? They seem use an In-the-middle SSL Bump proxy. First, it works as a transparent proxy, meaning it will silently redirect all HTTPS traffic to SSL Bump proxy servers. You have to install and accept the proxy's Certificate Authority cert to make this work. Once done, each SSL connection is made from your host to the SSL Bump Proxy with ...


0

Kazahstan is intercepting all of your HTTP traffic, but they were already logging and intercepting all of your DNS traffic, because DNS esentially is plain-text. Changing the DNS servers will not help. Actually encrypting your DNS will not help, because all of your HTTP traffic is logged anyways... I actually know a bit about Kazahstan and they are ...


-2

“Anyone who controls the root CA knows everything you send through HTTPS, including your login passwords.” This is not true. First, note that what you are saying implies that Verisign (for example) can read your login passwords, credit card details, etc. That is quite obviously not the case. If you trust me as a root CA, that means that your browser will ...


Top 50 recent answers are included