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202 votes
Accepted

Why wasn't the KRACK exploit discovered sooner?

The 802.11 specification that describes WPA2 (802.11i) is behind a paywall, and was designed by a few key individuals at the IEEE. The standard was reviewed by engineers, not by cryptographers. The ...
Polynomial's user avatar
  • 135k
173 votes
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Consequences of the WPA2 KRACK attack

Citing the relevant parts from https://www.krackattacks.com: Who is vulnerable? Both clients and access points are listed in the paper as being vulnerable. See the tables 1 and 2 on pages 5 and 8 ...
Luc's user avatar
  • 32.9k
96 votes

How safe are Wi-Fi Hotspots? Because WPA 2 is compromised, is there any other security protocol for Wi-Fi?

EDIT/UPDATE 2017-10-17: This answer does not account for KRACK. That's an attack on both WPA2-PSK and WPA2-Enterprise. There's ways to detect and mitigate it, but they're not covered here. You need ...
Marcus Müller's user avatar
86 votes

To sufficiently protect against KRACK is patching the client, the AP, or both, required?

To fully protect your network, both the device and the access point will need to be patched: Source: https://www.krackattacks.com/#faq Finally, although an unpatched client can still connect ...
Citricguy's user avatar
  • 785
71 votes

Why wasn't the KRACK exploit discovered sooner?

In some sense, it feels like this should have been obvious. Remember Heartbleed, Shellshock, POODLE, TLS Triple Handshake attack, "goto fail", ... ? In hindsight, most of these problems seem to be ...
Steffen Ullrich's user avatar
49 votes

Why is WPA Enterprise more secure than WPA2?

All earlier answers are missing a very important step and its implication and are misunderstanding EAP. WPA2-PSK (aka WPA2 Personal) basically does the same thing as WPA2-Enterprise from the clients ...
Terrence de Kat's user avatar
49 votes

To sufficiently protect against KRACK is patching the client, the AP, or both, required?

TL;DR: It is often (but not always) enough to properly patch the WiFi client. You need to also patch the router it it works as WiFi client too (e.g., a repeater) or has fast roaming (802.11r) enabled. ...
Steffen Ullrich's user avatar
42 votes

What is stronger - WPA2 Enterprise with 2048 bit key, or Personal with 63 character passphrase?

Security from exhaustive search Ignoring the benefits and drawbacks of each protocol and focusing exclusively on the difficulty of a brute force attack, the answer is that they are both identical. The ...
forest's user avatar
  • 66.6k
32 votes
Accepted

How is attacking WPA different from attacking WPA2?

WPA was just a quick update to WEP protocol to solve some security problems until the final version of 802.11i standard was delivered. The message integrity check, per-packet key hashing, broadcast ...
z4k4's user avatar
  • 531
29 votes

Why wasn't the KRACK exploit discovered sooner?

The paper describing KRACK discusses this very issue in section 6.6. A couple of points: There were ambiguities in the specification. Also formal proofs of specification are based on a model of the ...
Dale Wilson's user avatar
28 votes

To sufficiently protect against KRACK is patching the client, the AP, or both, required?

According to this IBM XForce post: [...] Attacks must be within range of the access point and client. Both the client and access point have to be patched in order to be protected from these attacks....
mobill's user avatar
  • 441
24 votes

How does WPA2-PSK prevent evil twin password phishing?

No password is ever sent during the 4-way handshake, therefore it cannot be phished. When a client connects to an access point (AP) using WPA2-PSK, the password or pre-shared key (PSK) is, as the ...
Arminius's user avatar
  • 44.7k
21 votes
Accepted

Wifi encryption vs SSL encryption

This is where an understanding of the OSI model is useful: the different types of encryptions happen at different layers of communication. WiFi encryption protects all communication from your device ...
schroeder's user avatar
  • 129k
21 votes

How long would it take to brute force an 11 character single-case alphanumeric password?

The speed of WPA2, and the speed of modern GPUs, are essential to this answer. A reasonable prosumer-sized (~US$5K) GPU cracking rig with 6 GTX 1080s can try around 2 million hashes per second - but ...
Royce Williams's user avatar
20 votes
Accepted

How safe are Wi-Fi Hotspots? Because WPA 2 is compromised, is there any other security protocol for Wi-Fi?

WPA 2 is not compromised. For WPA2-PSK (pre-shared key) without WPS, only the key can be cracked using a brute-force attack or a wordlist. This can also happen offline (meaning you collect some data ...
Josef's user avatar
  • 5,973
20 votes
Accepted

How does a nonce reset allow for decryption?

This is because of being able to figure out the keystream for a given key and nonce when you can get both to be reused and the stream contains predictable information. In many ciphers, a key is ...
AJ Henderson's user avatar
  • 42.1k
13 votes

Consequences of the WPA2 KRACK attack

What are the real-world consequences of these attacks for users and owners of wireless networks Already a great answer here, but thought I would add my viewpoint to a part of it. There have been a ...
YLearn's user avatar
  • 4,007
13 votes
Accepted

WPA3 announced. Really needed?

According to The Hacker News, here are major improvements : WPA3 protocol strengthens user privacy in open networks through individualised data encryption. WPA3 protocol will also protect against ...
Soufiane Tahiri's user avatar
12 votes
Accepted

Why does a deauth attack work on WPA2 despite encryption?

The use of encryption in 802.11 is limited to data payloads only. Encryption does not apply to the 802.11 frame headers, and cannot do so as key elements of 802.11 headers are necessary for normal ...
YLearn's user avatar
  • 4,007
11 votes
Accepted

Is WPA2-Enterprise affected by the KRACK attack?

Yes it is exploitable. WPA Enterprise still relies on a 4-way handshake. The main difference between enterprise and non enterprise is how the client is authenticated, which is not the same as how the ...
RibaldEddie's user avatar
11 votes
Accepted

Krack attack(er) sees which traffic?

If either endpoint is patched you should view the connection as *secure. None of the traffic can be seen if the router is patched. The router will refuse to use the reset Nonce and the connection will ...
Hector's user avatar
  • 11k
11 votes

Why are WPA2 passwords longer than 16 bytes more secure than 16 byte passwords?

You state your CMAC is 128 bits, so in general you don't need a passphrase with more than 128-bits of entropy. However, if you choose a 16 character password (without picking the bytes completely ...
dr jimbob's user avatar
  • 39.3k
10 votes
Accepted

What is the most used WiFi encryption? [WEP/WPA/WPA2]

WiGLE.net is a site where people upload information about WiFi access points they've discovered. It's not complete, but it's a very large survey that should at least show you the trends you are ...
John Deters's user avatar
  • 34.2k
10 votes

To sufficiently protect against KRACK is patching the client, the AP, or both, required?

I hear things both ways, it's hard to tell. The paper mentioning both clients and APs sounds like there is at least something to be done on both sides. This comment makes sense to me: "most access ...
Luc's user avatar
  • 32.9k
9 votes
Accepted

Would MAC filtering protect against KRACK?

In general, MAC filters (both whitelisting and blacklisting) are completely ineffective against a determined attacker, as MAC addresses can be easily changed and forged using standard system ...
multithr3at3d's user avatar
9 votes

KRACK: will there be an exploit soon?

The question is not whether there will be an exploit but what will be the range of upcoming exploits. This vulnerability receives so much attention precisely because of its impacts. Would it be a ...
WhiteWinterWolf's user avatar
9 votes

My ISP shows my WiFi password on their public site in plain text. Should I be worried?

What surprises me here is not the fact that the passwords are displayed in plaintext, but that your ISP keeps a copy of your wifi password at all. This is not something they need to do in order to ...
Anders's user avatar
  • 65.5k
8 votes

What is "anonymous identity" in enterprise WPA?

What is “anonymous identity” in enterprise WPA? Nearly all EAP methods in use for 802.1X with WPA/WPA2 wireless authentication utilize an "outer" authentication method simply to establish a TLS ...
YLearn's user avatar
  • 4,007
8 votes

Wifi penetration testing: Why aireplay-ng de-authentication does not work?

I had a similar problem with an RTL8812AU on Kali 2018. What fixed it for me was throwing a -D into the attack command line so it stops trying to automatically determine the channel and just does what ...
Nicodemus's user avatar
7 votes

Risks of giving a hacker my WPA key for my router?

If the attacker is sufficiently close to the access point and can connect to it, he can view all unencrypted network traffic that goes past your router by using a packet capture utility like Wireshark....
Jared Aaron Loo's user avatar

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