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202 votes
Accepted

Why wasn't the KRACK exploit discovered sooner?

The 802.11 specification that describes WPA2 (802.11i) is behind a paywall, and was designed by a few key individuals at the IEEE. The standard was reviewed by engineers, not by cryptographers. The ...
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174 votes
Accepted

Consequences of the WPA2 KRACK attack

Citing the relevant parts from https://www.krackattacks.com: Who is vulnerable? Both clients and access points are listed in the paper as being vulnerable. See the tables 1 and 2 on pages 5 and 8 ...
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  • 31.8k
96 votes

How safe are Wi-Fi Hotspots? Because WPA 2 is compromised, is there any other security protocol for Wi-Fi?

EDIT/UPDATE 2017-10-17: This answer does not account for KRACK. That's an attack on both WPA2-PSK and WPA2-Enterprise. There's ways to detect and mitigate it, but they're not covered here. You need ...
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86 votes

To sufficiently protect against KRACK is patching the client, the AP, or both, required?

To fully protect your network, both the device and the access point will need to be patched: Source: https://www.krackattacks.com/#faq Finally, although an unpatched client can still connect ...
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  • 785
72 votes

Why wasn't the KRACK exploit discovered sooner?

In some sense, it feels like this should have been obvious. Remember Heartbleed, Shellshock, POODLE, TLS Triple Handshake attack, "goto fail", ... ? In hindsight, most of these problems seem to be ...
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50 votes

To sufficiently protect against KRACK is patching the client, the AP, or both, required?

TL;DR: It is often (but not always) enough to properly patch the WiFi client. You need to also patch the router it it works as WiFi client too (e.g., a repeater) or has fast roaming (802.11r) enabled. ...
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47 votes

Why is WPA Enterprise more secure than WPA2?

All earlier answers are missing a very important step and its implication and are misunderstanding EAP. WPA2-PSK (aka WPA2 Personal) basically does the same thing as WPA2-Enterprise from the clients ...
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46 votes
Accepted

Why do coffee shops not use WPA/WPA2? Would it solve many problems if they did?

Instead of continuing in the comments, I think I will just answer your real question, which I understand to be - why is using WPA/WPA2 Personal with a public SSID and Passphrase not more secure than ...
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  • 2,926
42 votes

What is stronger - WPA2 Enterprise with 2048 bit key, or Personal with 63 character passphrase?

Security from exhaustive search Ignoring the benefits and drawbacks of each protocol and focusing exclusively on the difficulty of a brute force attack, the answer is that they are both identical. The ...
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  • 64k
38 votes
Accepted

What is the best home wireless network encryption algorithm to use?

From a security perspective, I think you are asking the wrong question. WPA2 is the basic answer. But it's entirely incomplete! A more complete answer will view WPA2 as one component of your wireless ...
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  • 434
32 votes
Accepted

How is attacking WPA different from attacking WPA2?

WPA was just a quick update to WEP protocol to solve some security problems until the final version of 802.11i standard was delivered. The message integrity check, per-packet key hashing, broadcast ...
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  • 531
29 votes

Why wasn't the KRACK exploit discovered sooner?

The paper describing KRACK discusses this very issue in section 6.6. A couple of points: There were ambiguities in the specification. Also formal proofs of specification are based on a model of the ...
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28 votes

To sufficiently protect against KRACK is patching the client, the AP, or both, required?

According to this IBM XForce post: [...] Attacks must be within range of the access point and client. Both the client and access point have to be patched in order to be protected from these attacks....
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  • 441
27 votes

What is the best home wireless network encryption algorithm to use?

In a nutshell, WPA2 is currently the most secure wireless security scheme. Personal and Enterprise It supports two main modes of authentication, known as WPA2-Personal and WPA2-Enterprise. The ...
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  • 2,220
23 votes

How does WPA2-PSK prevent evil twin password phishing?

No password is ever sent during the 4-way handshake, therefore it cannot be phished. When a client connects to an access point (AP) using WPA2-PSK, the password or pre-shared key (PSK) is, as the ...
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  • 43.6k
21 votes
Accepted

If WPA2-PSK is insecure, what other options do home users have?

There are two (main) modes in which to run WPA2. You can use enterprise mode or pre-shared key (PSK) mode. If you run in enterprise mode you need to set up an authenticating RADIUS server, and ...
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  • 4,971
21 votes

How long would it take to brute force an 11 character single-case alphanumeric password?

The speed of WPA2, and the speed of modern GPUs, are essential to this answer. A reasonable prosumer-sized (~US$5K) GPU cracking rig with 6 GTX 1080s can try around 2 million hashes per second - but ...
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20 votes
Accepted

How exactly does 4-way handshake cracking work?

Short answer is, 4-way handshake password "cracking" works by checking MIC in the 4th frame. That is, it only checks that KCK part of the PTK is correct. 4-way handshake doesn't contain data that ...
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  • 2,216
20 votes
Accepted

How safe are Wi-Fi Hotspots? Because WPA 2 is compromised, is there any other security protocol for Wi-Fi?

WPA 2 is not compromised. For WPA2-PSK (pre-shared key) without WPS, only the key can be cracked using a brute-force attack or a wordlist. This can also happen offline (meaning you collect some data ...
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  • 5,913
20 votes
Accepted

Wifi encryption vs SSL encryption

This is where an understanding of the OSI model is useful: the different types of encryptions happen at different layers of communication. WiFi encryption protects all communication from your device ...
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  • 123k
20 votes
Accepted

How does a nonce reset allow for decryption?

This is because of being able to figure out the keystream for a given key and nonce when you can get both to be reused and the stream contains predictable information. In many ciphers, a key is ...
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  • 41.8k
19 votes

Why do coffee shops not use WPA/WPA2? Would it solve many problems if they did?

You're missing the bigger question: why? Encryption adds greatly to the coffee shop's cost. There are small one-time costs incurred when someone has to configure the access points, assign ...
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  • 33.6k
15 votes

Does mixing different types of encryption make the connection more secure?

Yes and no. SSL offers end-to-end encryption between the application using SSL and the server to which you are connecting. It's a layer 6 protocol and may only provide security for that particular ...
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13 votes

Consequences of the WPA2 KRACK attack

What are the real-world consequences of these attacks for users and owners of wireless networks Already a great answer here, but thought I would add my viewpoint to a part of it. There have been a ...
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  • 3,927
13 votes
Accepted

WPA3 announced. Really needed?

According to The Hacker News, here are major improvements : WPA3 protocol strengthens user privacy in open networks through individualised data encryption. WPA3 protocol will also protect against ...
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11 votes
Accepted

Is WPA2-Enterprise affected by the KRACK attack?

Yes it is exploitable. WPA Enterprise still relies on a 4-way handshake. The main difference between enterprise and non enterprise is how the client is authenticated, which is not the same as how the ...
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11 votes
Accepted

Krack attack(er) sees which traffic?

If either endpoint is patched you should view the connection as *secure. None of the traffic can be seen if the router is patched. The router will refuse to use the reset Nonce and the connection will ...
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  • 10.9k
11 votes

Why are WPA2 passwords longer than 16 bytes more secure than 16 byte passwords?

You state your CMAC is 128 bits, so in general you don't need a passphrase with more than 128-bits of entropy. However, if you choose a 16 character password (without picking the bytes completely ...
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  • 38.6k
10 votes

What is the best home wireless network encryption algorithm to use?

Short answer is: use WPA2. WPA would be somewhat tolerable, but WPA2 should really be preferred. Do not use WEP, which is not really better than nothing (arguably, WEP is worse than nothing, because ...
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10 votes
Accepted

What is the most used WiFi encryption? [WEP/WPA/WPA2]

WiGLE.net is a site where people upload information about WiFi access points they've discovered. It's not complete, but it's a very large survey that should at least show you the trends you are ...
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  • 33.6k

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