Would a remote exploit such as ETERNALBLUE work on any target computer over the internet if you targeted the right ip or does it have to be on the same network and what would be examples of a local exploit and a remote (Like is the remote only over a network close to you in your range, while with local you have to have some type of access with the computer?)
Remote exploits are exploits that you can run on an external machine. Local exploits are exploits that you can run only with access to the machine (f.e. Privilege Escalations).
A remote exploit may be on a host inside an intranet, accessible only by few people, but also inside the internet, accessible by everyone.